Outdoor crops

The scientific use of augmentative natural enemy releases in outdoor crops is best established in Northern Europe for control of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis [Hubner]) in corn. Use is greatest in Germany and France, with about 11 000 acres being protected annually in Germany with Trichogramma releases. This is, however, only a small fraction of the total corn acreage in Europe, and use of biological control is concentrated principally where pesticide use is not allowed because of concern for health of people living near corn fields and is supported by a government subsidy. Natural enemy releases for mite control has been successful in strawberries in California, Florida, and the northeastern United States, and in outdoor shade houses used for production of foliage plants in Florida. In Mexico,

Russia, China, and other countries, large-scale releases of Trichogramma spp. have been made for a variety ofmoth and beetle pests of corn, sorghum, and cotton, but the efficacy of these releases has not been well demonstrated. In some instances, these activities have been state-supported and their actual economic value for pest control is not clear.

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