Parasitism

Parasites can interact with each other. Some parasites have parasites (i.e., hyperparasites), while other parasites compete with each other for host resources. For larval trematodes, competition for resources within the snail is intense and trematodes have special morphological and behavioral adaptations for interspecific interactions. For example, adding dominant trematode species to ponds can exclude subordinate trematode species. Parasites can interact with the host, often via the immune system, to displace other parasites or alter their pathogenic effects on the host. Despite all the potential for parasite-parasite interactions, few studies have considered what this means at the community level.

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