Plant Ecology All Conditions of Its Existence

The conditions of the existence of organisms in their environment are given by abiotic and biotic factors. In or near their optimum these factors or external control parameters fulfill basic requirements. However, according to the biological stress concept any of a vast multitude of factors can become a stress factor or 'stressor' when its dosage is either too low or too high.





Figure 1 Schemes of different types of networks: (a) open network with a hierarchy of levels, (b) closed network with (knots) and edges (connecting lines) where the hierarchy of levels is lost, (c) complex network composed of different closed networks, where each of the subnetworks composing it can be considered as a knot and where the supernetwork itself may become a knot in a yet more highly integrated supranetwork.

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