Flower pollination is one of the crucial events in the life cycle of many flowering plants (Figure 9). Competition for pollinators and subsequent specialization for pollinators represent major selective forces shaping the evolution of flowering plants. A shortage of pollinators and a low pollination quality may strongly decrease total seed production, and in many cases seed quality and seedling performance too. Nevertheless, some plants exhibit costs of reproduction in a way that when pollination is augmented in a population, future growth and reproduction can be reduced. Hence, the long-term demographic consequences of pollination are unclear.

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