Here we assume that the per capita prey growth rate is density independent (r(R) = r), which implies that in stability conditions  and , dr(R*)/dR = 0. This case corresponds to the original Lotka-Volterra model in the sense that the only mechanism that regulates the exponential prey growth is predation (i.e., top-down regulation).
Effects of the Holling type functional responses on population dynamics
We will consider the effect of replacing the linear functional response by a nonlinear functional response in the Lotka-Volterra model. Prey-predator population dynamics are described by dR w x
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