Reproduction is an important life-cycle trait since it determines the potential number of offspring to be recruited in the next generation. New recruits can be produced by vegetative reproduction, sexual reproduction, or both at the same time. Vegetative reproduction is the simplest form of reproduction in plants and can occur by forming bulbs, tubers, or rhizomes among others. Vegetative offspring are always genetically identical to the mother plant. In the case of sexual reproduction, meiosis ensures that offspring carry genetic material from each parent. The vast majority of flowering plants are hermaphrodites and fertilization (e.g., selfing or out-crossing) may strongly determine offspring quality in many plant species.

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