The response component accounts for human actions taken as a consequence of specific issues. In an optimal process, the responses should take effect on the driver and the pressures and thus, improve the environmental state. In most cases professional managers, decision makers, or politicians are in charge to solve environmental and societal problems. Possibilities of response are manifold, depending on the area of application (environmental, social, and economic), the temporal and spatial context, and the available options and instruments.
Typical response instruments are: legislative procedures (laws, ban, production standards), planning (construction and development plans, landscape planning), market or public-oriented instruments (taxes, bills, subventions), cooperation, information, education, and participation.
While response indicators are directly related to these different measures, the success ofthese response measures is basically monitored by the pressure and state indicators. Therefore, response indicators are often referred to as 'process indicators'.
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