Runoff is usually considered as a streamflow that involves surface runoff and groundwater flow that reaches the streams. Surface runoff is a function of intensity, duration, and distribution of rain precipitation; permeability of ground surface; surface coverage (i.e., arid or semiarid); geometry of stream channel; depth of water table; and the slope of the land surface. Surface runoff is commonly represented in the form of a hydrograph, which is a time record of stream-surface elevation or stream discharge at a given cross section of the stream. Surface runoff and groundwater flow are determined by the rainfall intensity and duration, rate of infiltration, volume of infiltrated water, soil moisture deficiency, and other characteristics of the basin.
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