One of the important needs of air quality modeling is to develop further integrated modeling systems that can be used to understand the impacts from aerosols and gasphase compounds emitted from urban sources at/on the regional and global climate.
Anthropogenic pollutant and, especially, aerosol emissions are highly nonhomogeneous. The formation and transformation processes of aerosols with respect to
concentration of particles and precursors and the gasphase chemistry are highly nonlinear; consequently, the scale at which the emissions, formation, and transformation processes are resolved in models has a significant influence on the resulting concentration fields of the aerosols and gas-phase compounds.
Upscale cascade simulations can be performed using a combination of models resolving from the urban-mesos-cale to the regional-global scale. The urban scale modeling is primarily intended to evaluate the source term and the role of the local processes in transformation of the primarily emitted aerosols. The mesoscale model can define intense sources like large cities and investigate the evolution of large urban plumes. These plumes are subgrid phenomena for the regional-global models that have the highest resolution (between 10 and 100 km grid sizes) in the zoomed areas. Therefore, urban-mesoscale models can be applied to derive these subgrid parametri-zations for the regional-global model. To understand the impact of aerosols and gas-phase compounds emitted from local/urban sources on the regional and global processes, three scales of the integrated atmosphere-
chemistry-aerosol and general circulation models have to be considered: (1) local, (2) regional, and (3) global.
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