See also Chaparral Further Reading

Ackerly DD (2004) Adaptation, niche conservatism, and convergence: Comparative studies of leaf evolution in the California chaparral. American Naturalist 163: 654-671. Arianoutsou M and Groves RH (1994) Plant-Animal Interactions in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Arroyo MTK, Zedier PH, and Fox MD (1995) Ecological Studies, Vol. 108: Ecology and Biogeography of Mediterranean Ecosystems in Chile, California and Australia. New York: Springer.

Blondel J and Aronson J (1999) Biology and Wildlife of the Mediterranean Region. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cowling RM (1992) Fynbos, Nutrients, Fire and Diversity. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press.

Cowling RM, Rundel PW, Lamont BB, Arroyo MK, and Arianoutsou M (1996) Plant diversity in Mediterranean-climate region. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11: 362-366.

Cowling RM, Ojeda F, Lamont BB, Rundel PW, and Lechmere-Oertel R (2005) Rainfall reliability: A neglected factor in explaining convergence and divergence of plant traits in fire-prone Mediterranean-climate ecosystems. Global Ecology and Biogeography 14: 509-519.

Dalmann PR (1998) Plant Life in the World's Mediterranean Climates. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Davis GW and Richardson DM (1995) Ecological Studies, Vol. 109: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer.

Di Castri F and Mooney HA (1973) Ecological Studies, Vol. 7: Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems. Origin and Structure. Berlin, Heidelberg, and New York: Springer.

Di Castri F, Goodall DW, and Specht RL (1981) Ecosystems of the World, Vol. 11: Mediterranean-Type Shrublands. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Hinojosa LF, Armesto JJ, and Villagrán C (2006) Are Chilean coastal forests pre-Pleistocene relicts? Evidence from foliar physiognomy, palaeoclimate, and phytogeography. Journal of Biogeography 33: 331-341.

Keeley JE and Fotheringham CJ (2003) Species-area relationships in Mediterranean-climate plant communities. Journal of Biogeography 30: 1629-1657.

Mazzoleni S, Di Pascale G, Di Martino P, Rego F, and Mulligan M (2004) Recent Dynamics of Mediterranean Vegetation and Landscape. London: Wiley.

Mittermeier RA, Robles Gil, Hoffmann M, et al. (2004) Hotspots Revisited: Earth's Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions. Monterrey: CEMEX, Washington: Conservation International, Mexico: Agrupación Sierra Madre.

Moreno JM and Oechel WC (1994) Ecological Studies, Vol. 107: The Role of Fire in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems. New York: Springer.

Ornduff R, Faber PM, and Keeler-Wolf T (2003) California Natural History Guides, Vol. 69: Introduction to California Plant Life. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Quezel P and Medail F (2003) Ecologie et biogeographie des forets du bassin mediterraneen. Paris: Elsevier.

Smith-Ramirez C, Armesto JJ, and Valdovinos C (2005) Historia, biodiversidad y ecología de los bosques costeros de Chile. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Universitaria.

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