An Ecosystem is a plural, local, web-like process. Ecosystem dynamics is constituted by recognition (making distinctions) and organic design (vegetative and animal design, or action).
The ability of organisms to categorize the world, to make certain distinctions, is a universal feature of life, being also a basis for designing the world by the organisms, or niche design. Niche design itself is a communicative process and phenomenon, as much based on the organisms' perceptual categorization and distinctive activities, as on their ability to make differences in perception and action.
Every physical body interacts with its environment and causes certain changes in its surrounding. In case of living organisms, however, in addition to the general physical interactions, there always occur specific individual transformations, based on specific recognition and action systems of the organisms, the ones that use code relationships, memory, experience. These are sign relationships, which are the basis for an active specific niche construction, or niche design. Niche design is based on the functional cycles of organisms that categorize the world.
Organisms differ (both interspecifically and intraspe-cifically) in their ability to recognize and to make distinctions.
Any community of organisms, thus any ecosystem, is a creation (both diachronic and synchronic) of many niche-
designing activities by the organisms belonging to many species. All new distinctions are built upon and are overlapping with the existing ones. Ecosystem is a nonstop 'symphony' of niche designing.
Communicative structure of ecosystem is comprised by
1. its division into species;
2. existence of various spatial congregations, swarms, herds, etc.;
3. internal temporal synchronization of organisms' activity;
4. the existence of regular code relationships between species and different functional groups in a community; and
5. the multiple (both temporal and spatial) overlap of constructions the groups of organisms make in their surroundings.
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