Sessile Invertebrates

Adults of many invertebrate species are attached permanently to the rock or other organisms (epibiota). These include members of the phyla Porifera (sponges), Cnidaria (hydroids and sea anemones), Annelida (tube-building polychates), Arthropoda (barnacles), Mollusca (mussels and clams), Bryozoa (moss animals), and Chordata (tuni-cates). Suspension feeding - either by pumping water through a sieve structure or trapping particles carried on induced or external currents - is a common feature of sessile animals and serves to transfer inputs of energy and nutrients produced in the water column into the intertidal zone via the ingestion of plankton. Additionally, by feeding on locally derived detritus, suspension feeders capture some of the nutrients that are produced by neighboring inhabitants.

Sessile intertidal animals are often physically or chemically defended against predation and display plastic phenotypes in response to changing environmental conditions because they are fixed in place and cannot move to avoid predators. For example, the presence of the predatory gastropod Acanthina angelica induces change in the shell shape of its barnacle prey Chthamalus anisopoma, and the barnacle forms a curved shell making it more difficult for the predator to attack.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Trash To Cash

Trash To Cash

This book will surely change your life due to the fact that after reading this book and following through with the steps that are laid out for you in a clear and concise form you will be earning as much as several thousand extra dollars a month,  as you can see by the cover of the book we will be discussing how you can make cash for what is considered trash by many people, these are items that have value to many people that can be sold and help people who need these items most.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment