Soil Toxicity

Phthalate esters, especially DBP, have been identified as being toxic to some plants in areas of restricted ventilation. Other studies indicate that effect levels exceed 100 mg kg- . In general, however, toxicity data are scarce or are to be considered unlikely. An example of an

Table 2 Overview of toxicity data used as input for the derivation of maximum permissible concentrations for DBP in the Netherlands

Taxonomic

NOEC

group

Species

(mgl1)

Chronic toxicity of DBP to aquatic organisms

Algae

Chlorella emersoni

2.8

Algae

Pseudokirchnerellia

0.77

subspicata

Algae

Scenedesmus

6.1

subspicatus

Algae (saltwater)

Dunaliella parva

0.28

Crustacea

Daphnia magna

0.88

Pisces

Oncorhynchus mykiss

0.1

Pisces

Pimephalis promelas

0.56

Taxonomic

L(E)C50

group

Species

(mgl1)

Acute toxicity of DBP to aquatic organisms

Bacteria

Vibrio fisheri

11-23

(saltwater)

Protozoa

Tetrahymena pyriformis

7

Algae

Pseudokirchnerellia

0.4

subspicata

Algae

Scenedesmus

4.2

subspicatus

Algae (saltwater)

Gymnodinium breve

0.05

Crustacea

Daphnia magna

3.9

Crustacea

Gammarus

2.1

pseudolimnaeus

Crustacea

Artemia salina

8

(saltwater)

Crustacea

Mysidopsis bahia

0.5

(saltwater)

Crustacea

Nitroca sinipes

1.7

(saltwater)

Insecta

Chironimus plumosus

2.5

Insecta

Paratanytarsus

6.3

parthenogenica

Pisces

Brachydanio rerio

2.2

Pisces

Lepomis macrochirus

1.5

Pisces

Oncorhynchus mykiss

2.3

Pisces

Perca flavescens

0.35

Pisces

Pimephalis promelas

1.2

Pisces (saltwater)

Ictalurus punctatus

1.2

NOEC = no observed effect concentration; L(E)C50 is the concentration at which an effect is observed for 50% of the test species (EC50), or the concentration at which 50% of the show mortality (LC50).

NOEC = no observed effect concentration; L(E)C50 is the concentration at which an effect is observed for 50% of the test species (EC50), or the concentration at which 50% of the show mortality (LC50).

unlikely result is a study in which an influence of DEHP on respiration in soil is reported at a concentration of 49 000 mg per kg DW. Assuming respiration inhibition to be induced via the porewater, assuming the highest value of Koc reported in literature (510 000 l kg-1), and assuming a high concentration of organic carbon in the soil of 10%, this value would be equal to a porewater concentration of at least 1 mgl-1. This is well above the water solubility of DEHP.

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