Spatially explicit models have been applied to management of toxic chemical issues primarily for fish, birds, mammals, and other vertebrate species. As discussed above, linking habitat selection models for fish and wildlife to ecotoxicological models will add realism to future risk assessments. Habitat models incorporating toxic chemical effects on plants are less common, but we expect their development and use to increase in the future. Spatially explicit models may include not only habitat models but also spatial-temporal variations in vital rates of populations, food web structure, nutrient and toxic chemical distributions, hydrologic variables, and other environmental factors.
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