Three big questions underpin most work in invasion ecology: which species invade; which habitats are invaded; and how can we manage invasions? Several organizing and unifying themes are organism focused and relate to species invasiveness. Traits contributing to the success of taxa as invasive aliens are not universal and need to be related to the features of the invaded community, geographical conditions, and a set of external factors, including propagule pressure. Social and economic factors are crucial at the introduction stage, biogeogra-phical and ecological factors assume primary importance at the stage of naturalization, and ecological and evolutionary principles are crucial mediators of invasiveness.
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