Step 3 defenses Prevent detection

When being within the detection range of a predator, a prey individual can reduce the probability of actually being detected in several ways. Camouflage is the best-known example for such a step 3 defense and is found in a vast number of animals, for example, in scorpionfish

Figure 4 Scorpionfish rely on their camouflage and allow close encounters, an example for a permanent step 3 defense. Shown here is an individual of the tassled scorpionfish (Scorpaenopsis oxycephalus). © Laforsch.

(Figure 4). Freezing reduces the detection probability as well, and so does slow movement or sleeping - the latter are also step 2 defenses (see above).

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