Global biogeochemical cycling is a superposition of big geological cycles and biological nutrient ones. Probably, this superposition started its development from the very early geological ages. Biogeochemical cycling can be interpreted as a stage of the general process of matter self-organization, as a manifestation of principle of maximization of energy flow through the open system. It is realized in the course of competition between biological cycles and their components. Improvement and intensification of cycling occur in the form of successions, that is, consecutive structural changes of ecosystems.

Circulation of different chemical elements can be different, but there are a number of standard pathways. Nontrivial interaction of biotic and abiotic components creates driving force of biosphere's progress and a guarantee of its stability. During the last centuries, the mankind became a new important participant of the process. Organic inclusion of civilization into existing global cycles is the prerequisite of survival of the humanity.

See also: Biogeochemical Models; Biogeocoenosis as an Elementary Unit of Biogeochemical Work in the Biosphere; Biosphere: Vernadsky's Concept; Energy Flows in the Biosphere; Food Chains and Food Webs; Structure and History of Life.

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