Gases and particles emitted from various anthropogenic and natural sources are transported with air masses and deposited to the aquatic and terrestrial surfaces. Atmospheric deposition can occur in a form of dry deposition or wet scavenging. Various meteorological, hydrological, physical, chemical, and biological processes are involved in atmospheric deposition making it a complicated part of the biogeochemical cycling of various chemicals in the environment.
Models were developed to simulate mechanisms and processes involved in atmospheric deposition. Dry deposition velocities and wet scavenging ratios were estimated for various gases and chemicals attached to particles. Monitoring programs provided information needed for verification of model estimates. Both model estimates and measurement data were then used to assess the atmospheric deposition as one of the major pathways for pollutants to the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.
Although a progress has been made to understand various processes and mechanisms involved in atmospheric deposition and assessment of its magnitude, improvement is needed in better parametrization of dry and wet deposition models. This would lead to more accurate assessment of the most significant factors affecting the physicochemical transformations and transport of various gases and chemicals on particles within and from the atmosphere to the other environmental compartments. More measurements are needed to obtain better knowledge of atmospheric fluxes of various chemicals and verify new model estimates.
See also: Air Quality Modeling.
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