Cross-system exchanges in the form of spatial subsidies are ubiquitous, even between seemingly distant and disconnected habitats. Subsidies can occur across a vast range of temporal and spatial scales, and can be driven by biotic or abiotic forcing (or some combination thereof). Spatial subsidies can have profound effects on entire ecosystems, with implications for species diversity, ecosystem stability, population dynamics, and persistence, often being the dominant factor driving ecosystem properties. Acknowledging and understanding spatial subsidies is critical to basic, theoretical, and conservation ecology.
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