In this article we have outlined evidence from diverse sources indicating that a variety of manmade compounds can interfere with reproductive system and brain development, resulting in reduced fertility, altered brain function, and behavior in wildlife, laboratory animals, and humans. Four summary points emerge based on the findings presented above and elsewhere in this encyclopedia:

• Contaminants at low levels can interfere with gene expression.

• Wildlife, laboratory animal, and human effects are strongly concordant.

• The available data are not consistent with several key assumptions traditionally used to guide regulatory science and regulations.

• Traditional epidemiology will have great difficulty establishing causation of effects of these chemicals in humans.

See also: Endocrine Disruptors: Effect in Wildlife and Laboratory Animals; Epidemiological Studies of Reproductive Effects in Humans.

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