Ecologists have long realized the crucial role of climate in determining the distribution and abundance of organisms and have benefited from recent technological innovations improving their ability to study microclimates. Clearly, scale is the most important element when considering microclimates, and it must be considered in the context of the organism of interest. Once the organism and microclimate scale are identified, it is possible to account for sources of heat, water, and nutrient flux and processes that mediate them. Microclimates have pervasive effects from the subcellular level to the biogeographic level making mathematical models, which integrate microclimate with environmental factors and organism physiology, the best way to further test ecological concepts.

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