Metapopulations are assemblages of local populations inhabiting networks of habitat patches in fragmented landscapes. The local populations are typically coupled by more or less migration among the populations. Metapopulation models are used to describe, analyze, and predict the dynamics of metapopulations. Models have been constructed to investigate the consequences of migration on the pattern and synchrony of local dynamics, the processes that may lead to spatial pattern formation due to ecological interactions, the persistence of metapopulations in patch networks in a stochastic balance between local extinctions and colonizations, and the response of metapo-pulations to changing landscape structure. Metapopulation models for highly fragmented landscapes predict an
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