Ecosystem health is a concept that integrates environmental conditions with the impacts of anthropogenic activities in order to give information for a sustainable use and management of natural resources. Therefore, related indicators have to reflect these anthropogenic impacts to represent the complex cause and effect relations in human-environmental systems. Different indicator concepts and exemplary sets of indicators are presented within the text. The focal categories are indicators based on: the abundance of selected species, the concentration of selected elements, ratios between different classes of organisms or elements, ecological strategies or processes, and ecosystem composition and structure and systems theoretical holistic indicators.

See also: Average Taxonomic Diversity and Distinctness; Benthic Response Index; Berger-Parker Index; k-Dominance Curves; Margalef's Index; Shannon-Wiener Index; Simpson Index; Specific Exergy as Ecosystem Health Indicator.

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