Surplus-production models (production models) were the first fishery models to consider all four forces of population dynamics (eqn ) together with density dependence. In contrast to yield-per-recruit or early catch-age models, the population is modeled as persisting across years and generations by means of recruitment. Production models are not detailed: the population is considered an undifferentiated biomass, without age structure, and dynamic forces are combined into few parameters.
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