Dynamic population models propose in detail how several biotic processes interact as they are constrained by the complex of factors over the environmental gradient. The biotic processes include variable settlement, indeterminate growth, and size-dependent competition or predation (carnivory and herbivory) (see Predation). The tidal gradient presents a cline in both physical stresses and productivity (recruitment and subsequent growth) of the sedentary species. The spatial variation in physical conditions generates effects indirectly by shifting the relative levels of the biotic processes over the vertical gradient. These dynamic properties are evident in models of two very different species assemblages.
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