Forests outside the tropical regions are affected by a wide range of different climatic conditions and differences in projected change. There are regions where water availability will likely decrease (e.g., SE Europe) leading to reduced forest growth and biomass. In other regions, growth is expected to increase due to increasing temperatures, higher CO2, and also the deposition of nitrogen-rich pollutants (N. Europe). Typical boreal forests can be expected to expand to regions further north, but it is not always clear what the response is at their southern boundary, where either a transformation to different forest types could occur or a loss of forest cover due to drought. In most forests, dynamics of disturbances (fire, wind storms, insects) are highly sensitive to changes in climate.
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