Transformation of Solar Energy Inside the EAS

What is the fate of 340 W m-2 of SWR coming into the top of the atmosphere? Clouds reflect about 68 W m-2 of the total incoming radiation. Molecules of atmospheric gases and aerosols still scatter 16Wm- by forming so-called diffuse radiation, half of which finally goes out to the space, and other half reaches the ground. The 26 W m-2 of SWR is reflected by the ground. So, the 68 + 8 + 26 = 102Jm- of energy in the form of SWR leaves our planet every second. The rest, 238 Wm- , is consumed and used by the EAS to maintain the work of the Earth's climate machine: evaporation and 'precipitation', 'oceanic currents', atmospheric circulation, etc.

About 78 W m-2 is absorbed by the atmosphere and then used in different phase transitions: clouds formation, precipitation, formation of dew, etc. Another part, 160 W m-2, is absorbed by the ground. The measurements show that the spectrum of radiation coming into the Earth's surface is a mixture of SWR, (Es )G = 186 W m-2, and LWR (a counter-radiation from the warmed atmosphere), (EL )g = 102 Wm-2. The ground irradiates into the atmosphere (ES"")G = 26 Wm-2 of SWR that corresponds to the mean albedo aG = (E^™)G/(E™)G ~ 0.14 and (EL™)G = 160Wm-2 of LWR. The; radiation absorbed by the ground, 160 Wm-2, is transformed to heat. The depth of heat penetration depends on the properties of underlying surface. For the land, the depth depends on the properties of soil (for instance, soil moisture) and equals a few meters. As to the ocean, oceanic waves intermix effectively the surface layer, so that the depth is about 100-200 m. If we take into account that the mean depth of the ocean is 3800 m, then the depth of heat penetration is negligibly small in comparison with the mean depth. Therefore, the warmed body is a very thin film, which is not able to warm the 'lithosphere' (their masses are not commensurable), but it is warming up the atmosphere. Seasonal and diurnal oscillations of the temperature at the levels lying below the film stopped. The film is considered as a low boundary (basement) for the EAS, and it is namely identified with the

Earth's surface. A heat flow across the low boundary is negligibly small. For instance, the thermal flow from the Earth's upper mantle is maximally 0.2 W m~ . So, one can say that the EAS consists of the atmosphere and the upper layers of the 'hydrosphere and lithosphere'.

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