Deforestation is the dominating threat to many tropical forest ecosystems, on all continents and across the gradient from semiarid to perhumid climate. Nevertheless, there is concern about climate change impacts in several areas, particularly in Amazonia. Some climate models project dramatic losses in rainfall during the twenty-first century, associated with increased interannual variability. This translates to a risk for widespread dieback of these forests, although the picture is currently inconclusive due to differences between climate models. Independent of this, increased fragmentation of tropical forests has been shown to lead to regional changes in rainfall which in turn reduces forest stability.
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