Tundras exist in subarctic and Arctic climates at high southern and northern latitudes, as well as in high mountain areas. Particularly in the north, these are the regions where observed and expected warming reach the highest values. Physical impacts occur predominantly through the destabilization of permanently frozen soils and subsequent erosion. The next step of ecosystem change is due to the encroachment of taiga plants into the tundra, changing the entire species pool. The time lags for these responses may differ widely in different regions.
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