Various other indices

Pollution indices (or biological indices) on hard substrata are poorly represented in the literature. It is necessary

Table 2 Factors affecting the six different groups of species according to their sensibility/resistance to pollution

Index of quality

Index of pollution-degradation

IP1: Pollution indicative rank 1 (internal polluted sub zone) species; 1

IP2: Pollution indicative rank 2 (external polluted sub zone) species 2

Opp.1: Opportunistic rank 1, 'sentinel' of the subnormal zone species 3

Opp.2: Opportunistic rank 2, large ecological distribution species, 4

Sed.: Quality of sediment indicative species 5

Bioc.: Characteristic of biocenose species 6

Figure 3 Mean AMBI values over the area of sea-exit of big sewer of Marseille, in Cortiou cove. Prepared by Borja A with data of Bellan G.

Table 3 A classification scheme of soft-bottom benthic habitats; comparison of indices of quality and pollution-degradation versus AMBI

Index of quality Quality of environment

Index of pollution-degradation

State of degradation

AMBI correspondences (tentative)

6< Very high >5 5 < High >4 4 < Mean > 3 3 < Low > 2 2 < Very low > 1

Heavily disturbed Moderately disturbed Slightly disturbed Slightly disturbed Undisturbed

Figure 4 Model of the faunal successional stages along a gradient disturbance from left to right (after Pearson TH and Rosenberg R (1978) Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Reviews 16: 229-311) and the benthic quality indices (BQI)forthe different environmental status according to the Water Framework Directive are presented for depths >20 m and <20 m at the bottom of the figure. Modified from Rosenberg R, Blomqvist M, Nilsson HC, Cederwall H, and Dimming A (2004) Marine quality assessment by use of benthic species-abundance distributions: A proposed new protocol within the European Union Water Framework Directive. Marine Pollution Bulletin, with permission from Elsevier.

Figure 4 Model of the faunal successional stages along a gradient disturbance from left to right (after Pearson TH and Rosenberg R (1978) Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Reviews 16: 229-311) and the benthic quality indices (BQI)forthe different environmental status according to the Water Framework Directive are presented for depths >20 m and <20 m at the bottom of the figure. Modified from Rosenberg R, Blomqvist M, Nilsson HC, Cederwall H, and Dimming A (2004) Marine quality assessment by use of benthic species-abundance distributions: A proposed new protocol within the European Union Water Framework Directive. Marine Pollution Bulletin, with permission from Elsevier.

to acknowledge that these types of indices have been discarded. They merit a serious effort from researches. Maybe it is of some interest to recall some of them.

Algal pollution indices are generally based on the ratios of different systematic groups, such as: IP = Bangio-phycidae/Pheophycea + Cryptomeniales + Ceramiales.

Annelidian index of pollution proposed as the ratio of tolerant to pollution polychaetes species to pure water polychaetes sentinels, as an index of pollution (IP), and it directly correlates to the degree of organic pollution.

Amphipod pollution index similarly proposed as the ratio of two Amphipod genuses Jassa (tolerant) and Hyale (sensitive). This ratio could as well be considered as a trophic index, Jassa spp. being detritus feeders and Hyale spp., grazers.

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