Irrigation, fertilization, and disease and weed control activities have the greatest impact on agricultural productivity. An inadequate management of these factors produces a detrimental effect on water and soil quality. Additionally, the quality of irrigation water and its effect on agricultural production is also important. For those countries that export mainly fresh products, international norms for the productive process, such as ISO 14000, and irrigation water quality standards are of utmost importance. The inclusion of these factors in production models is complex as restrictions to protect the quality of water involve additional costs, thus reducing the net benefits of production. However, poor quality (high contamination) of irrigation water limits agricultural production.
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