Whether a terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem is planned, the supply and internal transfer of water is critical. Air- and water-handling systems need to be carefully designed to prevent water contamination. Since water sequestration and loss is more or less inevitable, the water quality of both initial water and later top-ups must be carefully controlled. Rarely would tap water be acceptable. Water is the universal solvent, whether in liquid or gaseous form, and often 'sequesters' gases. Most ecosystems in greenhouses require the dedicated monitoring and control of atmospheric and water quality. Managed aquatic plant systems, such as algal turf scrubbers (ATSs), have been successfully used to manage water quality of adjacent ecosystems interaction, as we describe in some of the examples. Such systems can also control atmospheric quality (Figure 2).
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