Because of the global scale of Gaian processes, field observations of potential evidence supporting or refuting Gaia is difficult to obtain. Efforts continue sporadically to advance on this front, usually as a by-product of investigators' more mainstream activities. Possibly the most promising arena for testing Gaian ideas currently available lies in modeling and the understanding of complex systems. An early paper by Tregonning and Roberts in 1979 looked at how simple models of complex systems could develop homeostasis, and was seminal in early thinking about Gaia. Recently, the study of complex adaptive systems (CAS) has begun to advance our general understanding of the behavior of massively coupled complex systems. As this science progresses, insights applicable to testing Gaian predictions may well emerge.
See also: Autocatalysis; Biogeochemical Models; Carbon Cycle; Coevolution; Cybernetics; Emergent Properties; Homeostasis; Self-Organization; Systems Ecology.
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