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a density-dependent parameter affecting the herbivore death rate; = 1 at low herbivore densities, but > 1 and increases the herbivore death rate at high population densities k (kappa) the carrying-capacity term for the predator population due to territoriality Hh the minimum rate of food intake necessary for an herbivore to survive and replace itself

Xh the assimilation efficiency of the herbivore population

Xp the assimilation efficiency of the predator population b the half-saturation parameter for the herbivore population, equal to half of the maximum consumption rate, f c the maximum killing rate for the predator population when the search and capture components have been minimized d half-saturation parameter equal to half of the maximum predation rate, c

F the functional-response term for searching efficiency of the herbivore f the maximum consumption or grazing rate for the herbivore when the search and capture components have been minimized; replaces the parameter F h handling and digestion-rate components of the functional response of the herbivore

Kv carrying-capacity term for the vegetation (plant population)

mh instantaneous, density-independent mortality rate of the herbivore population n the number of grazers that determines whether plant quality increases or decreases

N the number of herbivores or grazers

N* the herbivore equilibrium population size when both plant and herbivore populations have stopped changing (dV/dt = 0 and dN/dt = 0) P the number of predators

Q average plant quality q the increase in plant quality in the absence of grazers rh herbivore (prey) maximum growth rate rv plant maximum growth rate s0 predator rate of increase limited by a carrying capacity due to a territory u0 plant growth rate when V is close to zero and V represents above-ground biomass

V plant abundance or biomass

V* the equilibrium plant abundance when both plant and herbivore populations have stopped changing (dV/dt = 0 and dN/dt = 0)

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