Exercise 44 M

Show that if a fraction 0 of multiple attacks on hosts lead to the emergence of a parasitoid, then Eqs. (4.16) are replaced by

P(t + 1) = H(t)aP(t)e-aP(t) + H(t)(1 - e-aP(t) - aP(t)e-aP(i))0

then explore the dynamical properties of Eqs. (4.17) by iterating them forward. As a hint: be certain to use sufficiently long time horizons that allow you to see the full range of effects.

There are other means of stabilizing the Nicholson-Bailey dynamics; these include various kinds of density dependence (Hassell 2000a, b) and spatial models (see Connections).

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