In this chapter, we have attempted to review the current thinking in fisheries ecology and management. The single-species paradigm is well developed and forms the basis of the vast majority of practical assessments of the status of commercially exploited stocks. The need for a more ecosystem-based approach is well recognized, but its practical application is currently difficult given the serious problems of parameter proliferation and estimation. The future is likely to be increasingly dominated by considerations from community ecology, but these are most likely to be implemented in adjustments to the single-species paradigm. By contrast, a full appreciation of the economic motivation of the stakeholders in fisheries is going to be needed if the understanding of fisheries and their management is to be improved.
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