LJ Pollution

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You'll Learn

■ Describe types of air pollution.

■ Identify causes of water pollution.

■ Explain methods that can be used to prevent erosion.

It's Important

By understanding the causes of pollution, you can help solve pollution problems.

Q Review Vocabulary atmosphere: the whole mass of air surrounding Earth

New Vocabulary

• acid precipitation

• greenhouse effect

• ozone depletion

• erosion hazardous waste

Keeping the Environment Healthy

More than six billion people live on Earth. This large human population puts a strain on the environment, but each person can make a difference. You can help safeguard the environment by paying attention to how your use of natural resources affects air, land, and water.

Air Pollution

On a still, sunny day in almost any large city, you might see a dark haze in the air, like that in Figure 11. The haze comes from pollutants that form when wood or fuels are burned. A pollutant is a substance that contaminates the environment. Air pollutants include soot, smoke, ash, and gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides. Wherever cars, trucks, airplanes, factories, homes, or power plants are found, air pollution is likely. Air pollution also can be caused by volcanic eruptions, wind-blown dust and sand, forest fires, and the evaporation of paints and other chemicals.

Smog is a form of air pollution created when sunlight reacts with pollutants produced by burning fuels. It can irritate the eyes and make breathing difficult for people with asthma or other lung diseases. Smog can be reduced if people take buses or trains instead of driving or if they use vehicles, such as electric cars, that produce fewer pollutants than gasoline-powered vehicles.

Figure 11 The term smog was used for the first time in the early 1900s to describe the mixture of smoke and fog that often covers large cities in the industrial world. Infer how smog can be reduced in large cities.

Figure 11 The term smog was used for the first time in the early 1900s to describe the mixture of smoke and fog that often covers large cities in the industrial world. Infer how smog can be reduced in large cities.

Acid Rain Dammage Scale

102 ♦ E CHAPTER 4 Conserving Resources ( _

Philippe Renault/Liaison Agency/Getty Images ^^^

Figure 12 Compare these two photographs of the same statue. The photo on the left was taken before acid rain became a problem. The photo on the right shows acid rain damage. The pH scale, shown below, indicates whether a solution is acidic or basic.

Figure 12 Compare these two photographs of the same statue. The photo on the left was taken before acid rain became a problem. The photo on the right shows acid rain damage. The pH scale, shown below, indicates whether a solution is acidic or basic.

Primary Succession Concept Map

Acid rain

Pure water i

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