M

mutualismo: tipo de relación simbiótica en la que ambos organismos se benefician. (p. 22)

native species/population especies nativas/población native species: original organisms in an ecosystem. (p. 134)

natural resources: parts of Earth's environment that supply materials useful or necessary for the survival of living organisms. (p. 94) niche: in an ecosystem, refers to the unique ways an organism survives, obtains food and shelter, and avoids danger. (p. 23) nitrogen cycle: model describing how nitrogen moves from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and then back to the atmosphere. (p. 46) nitrogen fixation: process in which some types of bacteria in the soil change nitrogen gas into a form of nitrogen that plants can use. (p. 46)

nonrenewable resources: natural resources, such as petroleum, minerals, and metals, that are used more quickly than they can be replaced by natural processes. (p. 95) nuclear energy: energy produced from the splitting apart of billions of uranium nuclei by a nuclear fission reaction. (p. 98)

n especies nativas: organismos originales de un ecosistema. (p. 134) recursos naturales: partes del medio ambiente terrestre que proporcionan materiales útiles o necesarios para la supervivencia de los organismos vivos. (p. 94) nicho: en un ecosistema, se refiere a las formas únicas en las que un organismo sobrevive, obtiene alimento, refugio y evita el peligro. (p. 23) ciclo del nitrógeno: modelo que describe cómo se mueve el nitrógeno de la atmósfera al suelo, a los organismos vivos y de nuevo a la atmósfera. (p. 46) fijación del nitrógeno: proceso en el cual algunos tipos de bacterias en el suelo transforman el nitrógeno gaseoso en una forma de nitrógeno que las plantas pueden usar. (p. 46) recursos no renovables: recursos naturales, como el petróleo, los minerales y los metales, que son utilizados más rápidamente de lo que pueden ser reemplazados mediante procesos naturales. (p. 95) energía nuclear: energía producida a partir del fraccionamiento de billones de núcleos de uranio mediante una reacción de fisión nuclear. (p. 98)

ozone depletion: thinning of Earth's ozone layer caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) leaking into the air and reacting chemically with ozone, breaking the ozone molecules apart. (pp. 105, 136)

agotamiento del ozono: reducción de la capa de ozono causada por clorofluorocarbonos (CFCs) que se liberan al aire y reaccionan químicamente con el ozono descomponiendo sus moléculas. (pp. 105, 136)

parasitism: a type of symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is harmed. (p. 22) petroleum: nonrenewable resource formed over hundreds of millions of years mostly from the remains of microscopic marine organisms buried in Earth's crust. (p. 95)

pioneer species: first organisms to grow in new or disturbed areas. (p. 64) pollutant: substance that contaminates any part of the environment. (p. 102) population: all the organisms that belong to the same species living in a community. (p. 10)

parasitismo: tipo de relación simbiótica en la que un organismo se beneficia y el otro es perjudicado. (p. 22)

petróleo: recurso no renovable formado durante cientos de millones de años, en su mayoría a partir de los restos de organismos marinos microscópicos sepultados en la corteza terrestre. (p. 95) especies pioneras: primeros organismos que crecen en

áreas nuevas o alteradas. (p. 64) contaminante: sustancia que contamina cualquier parte del medio ambiente. (p. 102) población: todos los organismos que pertenecen a la misma especie dentro de una comunidad. (p. 10)

producer/temperate rain forest productor/bosque lluvioso templado producer: organism, such as a green plant or alga, that uses an outside source of energy like the Sun to create energy-rich food molecules. (p. 20)

productor: organismo, como una planta o un alga verde, que utiliza una fuente externa de energía, como la luz solar, para producir moléculas de nutrientes ricas en energía. (p. 20)

recycling: conservation method that is a form of reuse and requires changing or reprocessing an item or natural resource. (p. 113) reintroduction program: conservation strategy that returns organisms to an area where the species once lived and may involve seed banks, captive populations, and relocation. (p. 142)

renewable resources: natural resources, such as water, sunlight, and crops, that are constantly being recycled or replaced by nature. (p. 95)

reciclaje: método de conservación como una forma de reutilización y que requiere del cambio o reprocesamiento del producto o recurso natural. (p. 113) programa de reintroducción: estrategia de conservación que devuelve a los organismos a un área en la que la especie vivió alguna vez, pudiendo involucrar bancos de semillas, poblaciones cautivas y reubicación. (p. 142) recursos renovables: recursos naturales, como el agua, la luz solar y los cultivos, que son reciclados o reemplazados constantemente por la naturaleza. (p. 95)

soil: mixture of mineral and rock particles, the remains of dead organisms, air, and water that forms the topmost layer of Earth's crust and supports plant growth. (p. 38) succession: natural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area; can be primary or secondary. (p. 64) symbiosis: any close relationship between species, including mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. (p. 22)

suelo: mezcla de partículas minerales y rocas, restos de organismos muertos, aire y del agua que forma la capa superior de la corteza terrestre y favorece el crecimiento de las plantas. (p. 38) sucesión: cambios graduales y naturales en los tipos de especies que viven en un área; puede ser primaria o secundaria. (p. 64) simbiosis: cualquier relación estrecha entre especies, incluyendo mutualismo, comensalismo y parasitismo. (p. 22)

taiga (TI guh): world's largest biome, located south of the tundra between 50° N and 60° N latitude; has long, cold winters, precipitation between 35 cm and 100 cm each year, cone-bearing evergreen trees, and dense forests. (p. 70) temperate deciduous forest: biome usually having four distinct seasons, annual precipitation between 75 cm and 150 cm, and climax communities of deciduous trees. (p. 71) temperate rain forest: biome with 200 cm to 400 cm of precipitation each year, average temperatures between 9°C and 12°C, and forests dominated by trees with needlelike leaves. (p. 71)

taiga: el bioma más grande del mundo, localizado al sur de la tundra entre 50° y 60° de latitud norte; tiene inviernos prolongados y fríos, una precipitación que alcanza entre 35 y 100 centímetros cúbicos al año, coníferas perennifolias y bosques espesos. (p. 70) bosque caducifolio templado: bioma que generalmente tiene cuatro estaciones distintas, con una precipitación anual entre 75 y 150 centímetros cúbicos y un clímax comunitario de árboles caducifolios. (p. 71) bosque lluvioso templado: bioma con 200 a 400 centímetros cúbicos de precipitación al año; tiene una temperatura promedio entre 9 y 12°C y bosques dominados por árboles de hojas aciculares. (p. 71)

threatened species/wetland threatened species: species that is likely to become endangered in the near future. (p. 131) tropical rain forest: most biologically diverse biome; has an average temperature of 25°C and receives between 200 cm and 600 cm of precipitation each year. (p. 72)

tundra: cold, dry, treeless biome with less than 25 cm of precipitation each year, a short growing season, permafrost, and winters that can be six to nine months long. Tundra is separated into two types: arctic tundra and alpine tundra. (p. 69)

especies amenazadas/zona húmeda especies amenazadas: especies susceptibles de verse amenazadas en un futuro cercano. (p. 131) selva húmeda tropical: el bioma más diverso biológicamente; tiene una temperatura promedio de 25°C y recibe entre 200 y 600 centímetros cúbicos de precipitación al año. (p. 72) tundra: bioma sin árboles, frío y seco, con menos de 25 centímetros cúbicos de precipitación al año; tiene una estación corta de crecimiento y permafrost e inviernos que pueden durar entre 6 y 9 meses. La tundra se divide en dos tipos: tundra ártica y tundra alpina. (p. 69)

water cycle: model describing how water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back to the surface again through evaporation, condensation, and precipitation. (p. 45)

wetland: a land region that is wet most or all of the year. (p. 79)

ciclo del agua: modelo que describe cómo se mueve el agua de la superficie de la Tierra hacia la atmósfera y nuevamente hacia la superficie terrestre a través de la evaporación, la condensación y la precipitación. (p. 45) zona húmeda: región lluviosa la mayor parte del año. (p. 79)

Abiotic factors

Italic numbers = illustration/photo Bold numbers = vocabulary term lab = indicates a page on which the entry is used in a lab act = indicates a page on which the entry is used in an activity

Camels

Abiotic factors, 36, 36-43; air, 36, 37, 41; climate, 41, 41-42, 42; soil, 38, 38 lab, 43 lab; sunlight, 38, 38; temperature, 39, 39-40, 40; water, 36, 37, 37 Acid precipitation, 103, 103, 103 lab, 135, 135, 135 lab Acid rain, 135, 135, 135 lab Activities, Applying Math, 40, 80, 129; Applying Science, 15, 114; Integrate Astronomy, 9; Integrate Career, 79; Integrate Chemistry, 21, 103; Integrate Earth Science, 6, 42, 74, 82; Integrate Health, 12, 23, 106; Integrate Physics, 41, 97; Integrate Social Studies, 16; Science Online, 10, 16, 41, 49, 65, 81, 104, 114, 139, 142; Standardized Test Practice, 32-33, 60-61, 90-91, 122-123, 150-151 Africa, savannas of, 75, 75 Agriculture, and biodiversity, 126, 128, 129, 129; on grasslands, 75; and nitrogen fixation, 46, 47, 47; and soil loss, 109, 109 Air, as abiotic factor in environment, 36, 37, 41 Air pollution, 102-106, 135, 135; acid precipitation, 103, 103, 103 lab; greenhouse effect, 104, 104, 111 lab; indoor, 106, 106; and ozone depletion, 105, 105; smog, 102, 102 Air quality, 106. See also Air pollution Air temperature, 104, 104 Algae, and mutualism, 22, 22; as producers, 20; and water pollution, 107

Alligator(s), 24, 139

Aluminum, recycling, 114 Animal(s), captive populations of, 142, 142; competition among, 12, 12; cooperation among, 24; in desert, 74, 74; endangered species of, 131, 131, 132, 138, 138, 139, 139, 139 act; in energy flow, 51, 51, 52, 52; extinct species of, 130, 130; and food chain, 51, 51; in grasslands, 75, 75; habitats of, 11, 11, 12, 12, 23, 23, 131,

131, 133, 133 lab, 133-134, 140, 140-141, 141, 143; introduced species of, 134, 134; migration of, 17; native species of, 134, 134; reintroduction programs for, 142, 142 act, 143; relocation of, 143, 143; on taiga, 70, 70; in temperate deciduous forest, 70, 71; in temperate rain forest, 71, 71; and temperature, 39, 39; threatened species of, 131, 131,

132, 133, 133; in tropical rain forest, 72, 73; on tundra, 69, 69

Applying Math, Chapter Review, 31, 59, 89, 121, 149; Measuring Biodiversity, 129; Section Review, 42, 53, 67, 100, 110; Temperature, 80; Temperature Changes, 40 Applying Science, Do you have too many crickets?, 15; What items are you recycling at home?, 114 Applying Skills, 11, 19, 24, 49, 75,

83, 115, 136, 143 Aquatic ecosystems, 77-85;

freshwater, 77, 77-79, 78, 78 lab, 79, 84-85 lab, 86, 86; saltwater, 80-83, 81, 81 act, 82, 83 Arctic, 8, 8, 10

Atmosphere, as abiotic factor in environment, 36, 37; carbon dioxide in, 136; and gravity, 41 act; ozone layer in, 136

Beginning growth, 18 Biodiversity, 136, 136-137; importance of, 127-129, 128, 129; laws protecting, 139; marine, 140; measuring, 126, 127; of plants, 128, 128, 144-145 lab; preserving, 124, 126; protecting, 138, 138; reduction of, 130, 130-137, 131, 132 Biological organization, 10, 10 Biomes, 68-75. See also Land biomes Biosphere, 8, 8-9 Biotic factors, 36 Biotic potential, 16, 17 lab Birds, and competition, 12, 12; endangered species of, 132; extinct species of, 130, 130; habitats of, 11, 11, 12, 12; interactions with other animals, 6, 6, 9, 9; migration of, 17; and oil spills, 137 lab; relocation of, 143, 143 Birthrates, 16, 16 act Bison, 9, 9

Breeding, crossbreeding, 128 Butterflies, 23

Cancer

Cancer, 136

Captive population, 142, 142 Carbon cycle, 48, 49 Carbon dioxide, in atmosphere, 136; in carbon cycle, 48, 49; and greenhouse effect, 104, 111 lab; in photosynthesis, 37 Carbon monoxide, 106 Carnivores, 21, 21, 51, 51 Carrying capacity, 15, 18, 19 Carson, Rachel, 79 Cascade Mountains, 42 Cataracts, 136 Cell(s), solar, 100, 100 Census, 13, 28

Chemosynthesis, 20, 50, 50-51 Chesapeake Bay, 83 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 105 Chlorophyll, 20, 22 Climate, 41; as abiotic factor in environment, 41, 41-42, 42; extreme, 56, 56; and global warming, 136; and greenhouse effect, 104, 104, 111 lab; and land, 68; and solar radiation, 105, 105

Climate community, 67, 67, 68 Clown fish, 22, 22 Coal, 96, 96 Commensalism, 22, 22 Communicating Your Data, 25, 27, 43, 55, 76,85, 111, 117, 137, 145

Communities, 10; climax, 67, 67, 68; interactions within, 10, 20-24; symbiosis in, 22, 22 Competition, 12, 12, 13, 13 lab Composting, 115, 115 Condensation, 45, 45 Condors, 132

Conservation, 112-115; and animal habitats, 133; of fossil fuels, 96; recycling, 113, 113-115, 114 act, 115; reducing, 112; reusing, 112, 112 Conservation biology, 138, 138-143

Consumers, 21, 21, 34, 50, 51, 51 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, 139 Cooperation, 24 Coral reef, 8, 8, 81, 81, 81 lab

Corn, 128 Cotton, 94 Coyotes, 18 Crickets, 12, 13, 14 Crossbreeding, 128 Cycles, 44-49; carbon, 48, 49; nitrogen, 46, 46-47, 47; water, 44, 44-45, 45

Dam, 97

Data Source, 84, 116 DDT, 143

Death rates, 16, 16 act Decomposers, 21, 21 Deer, 70

Desert(s), 8, 8, 74, 74; competition in, 12, 12; water in, 37 Desertification, 74 Design Your Own, Population Growth in Fruit Flies, 26-27 Dinosaurs, extinction of, 130 Diseases, plants as cure for, 128,128 Diversity. See Biodiversity

Eagle, 139

Earth, biosphere of, 8, 8-9; ecosystems of, 35 lab; life on, 9

Ecological succession, 64-67, 66

Ecology, 9

Ecosystems, 9, 9, 35 lab, 62-85; aquatic, 77-85, 78 lab, 84-85 lab; carrying capacity of, 15, 18, 19; changes in, 64, 64-67, 65, 66; competition in, 12, 12; habitats in, 11, 11, 12, 12, 23, 23, 131, 131, 133, 133 lab, 133-134, 140, 140-141, 141, 143; land, 68, 68-76, 76 lab; limiting factors in, 14; populations in, 10, 13-19, 23, 24, 26-27 lab; stability of, 129, 129

Electricity, generating, 97, 97-100, 98; and water, 97; from wind power, 98

Elephant, 139

Elevation, and temperature, 40,

40, 40 act Endangered species, 131, 131, 132,

138, 138, 139, 139, 139 act Endangered Species Act of 1973,

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment