Real Estate Development Ebooks Catalog
Despite their obvious importance to human well-being, people tend to think of ecosystems as being economically productive in narrow terms, often assigning value only to the production of conventional commodities or to real estate development. Provision of ecosystem services is only rarely considered in cost-benefit analyses, preparation of environmental impact statements, or other assessments of alternative paths of development. There is no shortage of markets for ecosystem goods (such as clean water and watermelons), but the services underpinning these goods (such as water purification and bee pollination) often have no monetary value. This is in part because ecosystem services are
One recent example of an integrated model is UrbanSim, an agent-based behavioral simulation model that allows for prediction of land-market responses to policy alternatives. UrbanSim predicts the spatial distribution of urban residential and commercial development based on its own models of household and employer behavior and through the integration of an external four-step travel-demand model. Predictions are based on statistically derived coefficients estimated from empirical data. It operates under dynamic disequilibrium in which supply-demand imbalances are addressed at each time step but are never fully satisfied, as they would be in a model assuming full equilibrium (e.g., DRAM EMPAL, Disaggregated Residential Allocation Model Employment Allocation Model). The disequilibrium approach accounts for process-specific timescales of change such as daily transport decisions (short-term process) or real estate development (long-term process).
Examples of physical stressors on terrestrial ecosystem include habitat loss or landtake such as the loss of a wetland to real estate development. This can affect shellfish and waterfowl that depend on such a habitat, or forest land conversion to real estate and the resultant loss of valuable plant and animal species. Habitat fragmentation which has led to the extinction of venerable species is also a form of physical stressor and is often initiated by humans from activities such as road construction that
In capitalist countries, planning sits at the intersection of market, political and administrative decision realms. Market actors finance a majority of the buildings, and thus take the risks and reap the rewards of real estate development. Government, meanwhile, finances a majority of the infrastructure elements and establishes regulations for land and building markets. Some decisions, such as the layout of the street grid and specification of allowed land uses, are usually under local control. Many other decisions, such as the placement of transport corridors and subsidy arrangements for housing finance, typically belong to higher levels of government. Thus intergovernmental relations and public-private sector relations are key elements of planning.
Barrier islands are frequently broken by channels that form after storms. Where they occur, tides usually rush through them carrying sand and silt to form deltaic deposits in the lagoon behind the island. Severe storms and hurricanes can alter the shape of barrier islands, which becomes evident when lighthouses have to be moved as a result of the disappearance of the island. Overuse of the islands, including real estate development, often leads to the destruction of vegetation that binds the loose sand together, eventually subjecting them to increased erosion and in some cases disappearance.
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