Make Money in the Recycling Business

Home Based Recycling Business

Make Money! Join the many individuals and families who are learning to prosper in the salvage and recycling business starting with little or no cash. You'll learn: How to bootstrap your business without going into debt. How to get your salvage for free or for pennies on the dollar. (In some cases you will be paid to take the material away). How to find the best price in the least amount of time. The tools and equipment you will need many easily fabricated. Information based on my experience in salvage, recycle and reuse in the following areas: Construction and building materials. Deconstruction and recycled lumber. Farm and ranch equipment and supplies. Heavy equipment salvaging for high value parts. Scrap metal ferrous and non-ferrous. Electronic, communication, and computer scrap and recycling. Salvage for alternative energy systems. Antiques and collectibles. Promoting and marketing. Always treating everyone with fairness and respect and not profiting from the misfortune of others ways to create win-win situations for All parties involved. How to deal with scrap and recycling dealers and brokers. Innovative businesses you can start using various salvaged materials. How to arrange transportation, interim storage, cheap yard space without dealing with high cost commercial operators. How to be paid for your work before you ever start. How to get the equipment and tools you need. How to stay solvent and operate on a cash basis. Continue reading...

Home Based Recycling Business Summary


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Additional Separation And Recycling

Perhaps the most extreme examples of separation and recycling are purge streams. Purges deal with both feed impurities and the by-products of the reaction. Purifying the feed can reduce the size of some purges. However, if purification is not practical or the purge must remove a byproduct of the reaction, additional separation is necessary. For each fractional recovery, a tradeoff exists between the capital and the energy required to obtain the optimum reflux ratio. The result is that the cost of separation (capital and energy) increases with increasing recovery (see Figure 3.8.11). On the other hand, increasing recovery saves the cost of some of the lost acetone. Adding the cost of raw materials to the cost of separation and recycling FIG. 3.8.10 Process improved by recycling the excess reactant and solvent used in the reaction.

Recycling 1153 ELVs From Theory to Practice

Of data, supported by a good mass balance based on data reconciliation, and the corresponding statistics and how this should be performed when carrying out experiments or auditing a plant. This theory is essential to characterize and control the material and element flows in recycling plants and through the complete recycling system, which is extremely important for good metal material accounting, the calculations of recycling rate on a sound statistical basis, as well as quality control of recycling streams. In fact this is the basis of any meaningful discussion on 'material and metal ecology'. Experimental and industrial data on the composition of the car, the separation efficiency of the various processes, liberation and particle-size reduction in the shredder, the quality (or grade) of the recycling (intermediate) material streams is typical information that becomes available through a good understanding of the theory of recycling as discussed in the previous section. Furthermore,...

Product Design and Fundamental Recycling Optimization Models

The design of a product is linked to recycling as depicted in Figure 4. The design does affect how materials are liberated during shredding, how efficient materials can be separated, and what the composition and quality of the recyclates will be. This determines if these recyclates can be recycled or not, therefore what the losses will be from the recycling chain. The control of the recycling chain determines what the qualities of the streams are and whether or not the recycling rate is high. This in essence determines whether materials and metals can be recycled, hence the pivot of 'industrial ecology of the materials and metals' within the car. This section will discuss the various factors influencing Product Design, the 'Metal Wheel', and Recycling Technology In general an increased complexity of recycling pyro-metallurgy has arisen through the development and design of modern consumer products (such as passenger vehicles and consumer electronics). The consequence is the formation...

Recycling Gadgets the Green

Although the third R of green gadgets is recycle, it doesn't necessarily mean that the items you want to dispose of will be broken down into parts and ground up, melted, or otherwise destroyed. As I say in the preceding section, the terms recycle and reuse are sometimes interchangeable. For example, if you have someone repair or update a working gadget or computer that you don't want or need and then put it back into someone else's hands, that process qualifies as both recycling and reusing. And yes, a bit of rethinking and reducing take place in the mix. Why do I talk more about trying to reuse or repurpose gadgets instead of sending them off to a recycler Here's where the rethinking comes into play. Think about recycled paper. It comes from existing paper that is collected, processed, and then repurposed as new paper. By selling a gadget or giving it away, you're repurposing it, but you're also essentially recycling it. What's cool here is that you're skipping the processing part of...

Deconstruction And Recycling

The method of fixing very largely determines to what extent a product can be disassembled for re-use, material recycling or energy recovery. Mechanical connections are clearly preferable. Components fixed with adhesives or mortars will, in many cases, be difficult to disassemble that may also require onerous cleaning.

Effluent Recycling Pump

York used this value to design a large 10-mgd plant (1577 m3 hr) with five, parallel, fluidized-bed reactors at the Bay Park Wastewater Treatment Plant in Nassau County, New York (Jeris, Owens, and Flood 1981). These five reactors with a combined volume of 1000 m3 operated at an up-flow rate of 37 m hr and a recycling ratio of 4.6. A PSA oxygen generator provided 6 tn day of oxygen (5443 kg day). The plant had various operating difficulties controlling microbial growth was the most problematic. The plant was shut down in 1991.

Alteration of Community Composition and Ecosystem Dynamics through the Stoichiometry of Recycling

When we place these specific stoichiometric recycling effects into the context of complete, complex ecosystems, a variety of interesting dynamics result. For example, as we just saw, terrestrial plant species that produce low-nutrient litter will have a depressive effect on mineralization rates in their vicinity. A low mineralization rate will reduce primary productivity, lower plant biomass, and raise light nutrient ratios. These conditions in turn will favor particular plant species that are good nutrient competitors. Because one factor that can improve a species' competitive ability for a given nutrient is a low content of that nutrient in its leaves, a cycle of positive feedback is favored with good nutrient competitors altering nutrient cycling in their vicinity in such a way as to improve their chances of success against other species. Figure 5 The rate of breakdown of terrestrial detritus depends strongly on stoichiometry. The higher the C N or C P ratio, the slower the leaf...


Reuse and recycling (waste recovery) can provide a cost-effective waste management approach. This technique can help reduce costs for raw materials and waste disposal and possibly provide income from a salable waste. However, waste recovery should be considered in conjunction with source control options. Waste reuse and recycling entail one or a combination of the following options

Recycling and Reuse

Recycling techniques allow reuse of waste materials for beneficial purposes. A recycled material is used, reused, or reclaimed 40 CFR 261.1 (c)(7) . Recycling through use or reuse involves returning waste material to the original process as a substitute for an input material, or to another process as an input material. Recycling through reclamation involves processing a waste for recovery of a valuable material or for regeneration. Recycling can help eliminate waste disposal costs, reduce raw material costs, and provide income from saleable waste. Recycling is the second option in the pollution prevention hierarchy and should be considered only when all source reduction options have been investigated and implemented. Recycling options are listed in the following order It is important to note that recycling can increase a generator's risk or liability as a result of the associated material handling and management. Recycling effectiveness depends upon the ability to separate recoverable...

Defining Industrial Ecology

Industrial ecology is ecological in at least two senses. As argued in the seminal publication by Frosch and Gallopoulos (1989) that did much to coalesce this field, industrial ecology looks to non-human 'natural' ecosystems as models for industrial activity.1 This is what some researchers have dubbed the 'biological analogy' (Wernick and Ausubel 1997 Allenby and Cooper 1994). Many biological ecosystems are especially effective at recycling resources and thus are held out as exemplars for efficient cycling of materials and energy in industry. The most conspicuous example of industrial re-use and recycling is an increasingly famous industrial district in Kalundborg, Denmark (Ehrenfeld and Gertler 1997 Chapter 27). The district contains a cluster of industrial facilities including an oil refinery, a power plant, a pharmaceutical fermentation plant and a wallboard factory. These facilities exchange by-products and what would otherwise be called wastes. The network of

Other Ecosystem Services

Since the agroecosystem is managed, and more or less sophisticated machinery and management skills are in place, it can easily be converted according to new demands from the society. If the quality requirements are met, agricultural fields can be used for recycling organic waste and ashes, and even for drawing nutrients out of sewage water. Conversion to energy crops is not too difficult (grasses, sugar beet, willow, sugarcane, etc.). Another demand from society, to sequester carbon in the soil to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere, has recently received much attention. Increasing soil carbon content usually has beneficial effects for soil structure, water-holding capacity and general fertility, and C sequestration, perhaps even with direct payments per ton C sequestered to the farmer, is a new potential service.

The Base of the Food

Estuaries are among the most productive of marine environments, although food abundance does fluctuate greatly over space and time. This extraordinary productivity is a product of the large amounts of nutrients that enter the estuary seasonally and their extensive recycling between the overlying water and the biologically active sediments. The Hudson has some interesting complications that create exceptions to these generalizations. Most importantly, the Hudson bears a large sediment load, coming from its drainage system and consisting of materials ranging from clays derived from erosionof glacially derived deposits to organic particles derived from substances such as leaflitter. The combination of materials reduces light penetration in the water column, which in turn reduces photosynthesis ofphytoplanktonandrestricts sub-aquatic attached vegetation to very shallow depths. The high particle concentration is complicated by strongvertical mixing, owing to tidal and wind mixing. Thus,...

Reducing Risk versus Optimizing Resource

Industrial ecology emphasizes the optimization of resource flows where other approaches to environmental science, management and policy sometimes stress the role of risk. For example, pollution prevention (P2) (also known as cleaner production or CP) emphasizes the reduction of risks, primarily, but not exclusively, from toxic substances at the facility or firm level (Allen 1996). Underlying this focus is an argument that only when the use of such substances is eliminated or dramatically reduced can the risks to humans and ecosystems be reliably reduced. In contrast, industrial ecology takes a systems view that typically draws the boundary for analysis more broadly - around groups of firms, regions, sectors and so on - and asks how resource use might be optimized, where resource use includes both materials and energy (as inputs) and ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles that provide crucial services to humanity (Ayres 1992a). In concrete terms, this means industrial ecology will...

Integrating Science and Society

Demand rears its head most vigorously in urban areas, especially in urban areas that are undergoing rapid development. New cities in China and India are obvious examples, but anticipated advances in wealth and urbanization throughout the developing world will mimic enhanced Chinese and Indian demand. It has been well established that urban residents use higher per-capita levels of many resources of all kinds than do rural dwellers (e.g., van Beers and Graedel 2007 Bloom et al. 2008). Urban people live in smaller dwellings and use energy more efficiently. The spatial compactness renders recycling more efficient and resource reuse more likely. However, cities are also point sources of pollution, which often overwhelm the assimilative capacities of adjacent ecosystems.

Heartbeats in the Muck

The benthos of the Hudsonis dominatedby species capable of living in soft bottoms. In freshwater areas the benthos consists mainly of diminutive animal species such as larvae of chironomid flies, oligochaete worms who depend upon organic detritus and sediment microbes for food (Chapter 19). Predatory fly larvae and amphipods are also common. In the saline reaches of the estuary, these species are supplanted by abundant polychaete annelids, amphipods, and patchy occurrences of mollusks such as clams. Again, a dependence on particulate organic matter and sediment microbes is widespread (Chapter 18). These animal species form rich populations that burrow in the sediment and accelerate the breakdown of organic matter and recycling of this material back to the water column. A few invertebrate species are specialized and are confined to the low salinity (oligohaline

Regulations And Definitions

Pollution prevention, as defined under the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, means source reduction and other practices that reduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants through (1) increased efficiency in the use of raw materials, energy, water, or other resources or (2) protection of natural resources by conservation. Under the Pollution Prevention Act, recycling, energy recovery, treatment, and disposal are not included within the definition of pollution prevention. Practices commonly described as in-process recycling may qualify as pollution prevention. Recycling conducted in an environmentally sound manner shares many of the advantages of pollution prevention it can reduce the need for treatment or disposal and conserve energy and resources. Pollution prevention (or source reduction) is an agency's first priority in the environmental management hierarchy for reducing risks to human health and the environment from pollution. This hierarchy includes (1) prevention, (2) recycling,...

Table 311 Definitions Of Pollution Prevention Terms

Pollution and pollutants refer to all nonproduct output, irrespective of any recycling or treatment that may prevent or mitigate releases to the environment (includes all media). Waste minimization initially included both treating waste to minimize its volume or toxicity and preventing the generation of waste at the source. The distinction between treatment and prevention became important because some advocates of decreased waste generation believed that an emphasis on waste minimization would deflect resources away from prevention towards treatment. In the current RCRA biennial report, waste minimization refers to source reduction and recycling activities and now excludes treatment and energy recovery. Source reduction is defined in the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 as any practice which (1) reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant entering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment (including fugitive emissions) prior to recycling,...

Source Reduction versus Discharge Reduction

The EPA has taken a strong position on pollution prevention by regarding source reduction as the only true pollution prevention activity and treating recycling as an option. Industry's position prior to the act (and effectively unchanged since) was to reduce the discharge of pollutant waste into the environment in the most cost-effective manner. This objective is achieved in some cases by source reduction, in others by recycling, in others by treatment and disposal, and usually in a combination of these methods. For this reason, this handbook examines all options in the pollution prevention hierarchy. Traditionally, regulations change, with more stringent controls enacted over time. Therefore, source reduction and perhaps recycling and reuse (instead of treatment or disposal) may become more economically attractive in the future.

Pollution Prevention Techniques

In the current working definition used by the EPA, source reduction and recycling are considered the most viable pollution prevention techniques, preceding treatment and disposal. A detailed flow diagram, providing an in-depth approach to pollution prevention, is shown in Figure 3.3.1. Of the two approaches, source reduction is usually preferable to recycling from an environmental perspective. Source reduction and recycling are comprised of a number of practices and approaches which are shown in Figure 3.3.2.

Table 331 Engineering Designbased Pollution Prevention Strategies

Install geodesic domes for external floating-roof tanks. Store VOCs in floating-roof tanks instead of fixed-roof tanks. Store VOCs in low-pressure vessels instead of atmospheric storage tanks. Use onsite boilers instead of wet scrubbers for air pollution control. Select vessels with smooth internals for batch tanks requiring frequent cleaning. Install curbs around tank truck unloading racks and other equipment located outdoors. Load VOC-containing vessels via dip pipes instead of splash loading. Install closed-loop vapor recycling systems for loading and unloading operations. Process Equipment Install inplant distillation stills for recycling and reusing solvent.

Table 335 Example Checklist Of Pollution Reduction Methods

Recycling, in-process or external Reuse or alternative use of the waste or chemical Change in sources from batch operations (for example, heel reuse, change in bottom design of vessel, vapor space controls, dead-space controls) Installation of isolation or containment systems Installation of rework systems for treating off-spec materials Change in practices for managing residuals (consolidation,

Decreasing of P emissions

This includes measures such as treatment plants for municipal and industrial sewages plants, extensifying agricultural land use, and recycling P in industrial wastes. The nutrient reduction can be achieved by so called ring canalization that collects sewage and storm water for treatment in a central plant downstream of the protected lake. Land management procedures, generally known as 'best management practice', are the primary method for protecting surface waters from non point loading.

Community and Ecosystem Consequences

The evolutionary diversification and dominance of terrestrial ecosystems by flowering plants has been aided by several such associations. Insects and other animals pollinate flowers much more efficiently than does the wind, and the specificity of their behavior has fostered reproductive isolation and diversification of plant species. The roots of most terrestrial plants are intimately associated with mutualistic fungi (mycorrhizae) that enhance their uptake of nutrients from the soil. One of the most ecologically important mutualisms between plants and microbes involves the fixation of organic nitrogen by bacteria (rhi-zobia) in the roots of legumes. This association introduces new usable nitrogen into soils, is important in plant succession and community organization, and provides a source of limiting nitrogen to grazing livestock and other animals. Reef-building corals similarly thrive in extremely nutrient-poor ocean waters, and form the foundation of the most diverse marine...

Principles Of Cleaner Production

Finally, cleaner production attempts to formulate an integrated approach to environmental protection. Traditional end-of-pipe approaches have tended to concentrate on specific environmental media air, water or land. One of the failures of earlier management approaches was to reduce specific environmental emissions at the expense of emissions into different media. Cleaner production attempts to avoid this problem by concentrating on all material flows, rather than selected ones. Furthermore, as the definitions point out, cleaner production demands that attention be paid to emissions over the whole life cycle of the product or service from raw material extraction, through conversion and production, distribution, utilization or consumption, re-use or recycling, and to ultimate disposal.

Reducing Waste From Single Reactions

If separating and recycling unreacted feed material is difficult, a high conversion in the reactor is necessary. For an irreversible reaction, a low conversion can be forced to a higher conversion by a longer residence time in the reactor, a higher temperature, or higher pressure. A longer residence time is usually the most effective means.

Cleaner Production V Industrial Ecology Discussion And Conclusions

Much of the early emphasis of the UNEP cleaner production program was on process technology. Under this interpretation of the term, cleaner production owed much to the earlier concept of pollution prevention (USOTA 1987 Hirschhorn and Oldenburg 1991). There remains a tendency for the UNEP cleaner production program to focus its efforts on process technology improvements rather than the more intractable problems associated with consumption patterns, or even product take back and recycling. The UNEP program's network of national cleaner production centers focus mainly on providing information on the potential for pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities in small and medium-sized enterprises. Many of the articles published in the Journal of Cleaner Production cover the same sorts of topics. At the same time, as noted above, there is an agreement that these kinds of actions do not exhaust the remit of cleaner production, and far broader interpretations of the concept...

Impurities and Catalyst Loss

Using heterogeneous rather than homogeneous catalysts can also reduce waste from catalyst loss. Homogeneous catalysts can be difficult to separate and recycle, and this difficulty leads to waste. Heterogeneous catalysts are more common, but they degrade and need replacement. If contaminants in the feed material or recycling shortens the catalyst life, extra separation to remove those contaminants before they enter the reactor might be justified. If the catalyst is sensitive to extreme conditions such as high temperature, the following measures can help avoid local hot spots and extend the catalyst life Fluid-bed catalytic reactors tend to lose the catalyst through attrition of the solid particles generating fines which are then lost. More effective separation and recycling of fines reduce catalyst waste to a point. Improving the mechanical strength of the catalyst is probably the best solution in the long run.

Ecological Stoichiometry Another Currency

Ecological stoichiometry is well established in aquatic ecology but not yet in terrestrial ecology. Two recent papers on stoichiometry (Anderson et al., 2004, Moe et al., 2005) argue persuasively that ecologists interested in animal population response to resource availability need to consider the currency with which they examine plant-animal interactions. They argue that ecological stoichiome-try provides a multiple currency approach to understand the effects of resource quality. By multiple currency, they mean that rather than abstracting populations as aggregations of individuals or biomass, organisms are represented by carbon (C), phosphorous (P), and other trace elements that allow key feedbacks, such as consumer-driven nutrient recycling processes (Anderson et al., 2004 p. 884). The argument is that both food quantity and quality can be incorporated into a single framework. The concept of currency here has two related parts one meaning refers to the difference between the...

Background extinction See extinction

Bacteria are found over almost all the planet, from the interstices of rocks deep underground to icebergs, mountains, deserts, deep oceans, and the insides of other organisms. Most are single cells, ranging from rounded cocci to rods and spirochetes. A few, such as the cyanobac-terium Anabaena, form filaments of cells, clusters, or dense colonies (e.g. the cyanobacteria that form stromatolites). Bacteria play an important role in the recycling of nutrients in soil and water, in decomposition, and in nitrogen fixation (e.g. the symbiotic bacterium Rhizobium in the root nodules of legumes).

Practicing Green Gadget Living

Taking stock of how much energy you use Turning off gadgets to reduce their carbon footprints Giving your gadgets and gear another go-round Recycling your unwanted or useless gadgets Weighing whether to make new gadget purchases Relating ecofriendly electronics concepts to others

Food web manipulations

Food webs are either regulated by resources ('bottom up') or by predation ('top down'). A strong reduction of the biomass of zooplanktivorous fish such as roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) is often followed by an increase in the abundance and size of zooplankton (pre dominantly Daphnia species). This increases the grazing pressure on phytoplankton and potentially leads to the top down control of phytoplankton biomass, in which case the water becomes clear and extreme values of oxy gen and pH are avoided (Figure 9). A reduced biomass of planktivorous fish may also reduce nutrient recycling rates. The success of food web manipulation may there fore also be triggered by bottom up forces. Benthivorous fish such as bream (Abramis brama L.) or common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) exert bottom up effects on water quality as they increase sediment resuspension, water turbidity, and internal nutrient loading. The removal of benthivorous fish may therefore also strongly determine...

O Hoegh Guldberg S Dove

In this chapter, the various drivers of the energy flow through coral reefs are explored. After investigating which physical and chemical factors define corals and the reefs that they build, we describe some of the fundamental biological relationships that lead to the capture of energy and nutrients by coral reefs, and how these essential requirements of life flow through coral reef ecosystems. As we will see, while primary production is similar to that of other shallow marine ecosystems, coral reefs have a high proportion of pathways that involve the recycling of nutrients between closely associated primary producers and consumers. We will also see that the highly productive nature of coral reefs is deceptive in that it is accompanied by the rapid and efficient recycling of nutrients and energy such that overall rates of accumulation of organic carbon as reef growth are low. This theme lies at the heart of the puzzle of how highly productive and diverse coral reefs can exist in the...

Reconnecting To The Natural Systems

This represents a kind of miniature of today's industrial thinking. Society devours virgin materials, consumes them in the production process, often with a very low level of recycling, and leaves the waste to nature. The industrial culture of a throughput economy is the antithesis of nature's diligence based on restricted resources. Nature's method is that of integration and optimization for the natural environment as a whole. Efficiency is based on the greatest variety of species where each has its own special place. There is a continuous interplay between all the different species.

Industrial gases and the greenhouse effect

Figure 2.21 An example of long-distance environmental pollution. The distribution in Great Britain of fallout of radioactive caesium (Bq m-2) from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in the Soviet Union in 1986. The map shows the persistence of the pollutant on acid upland soils where it is recycled through soils, plants and animals. Sheep in the upland areas contained more caesium-137 (137Cs) in 1987 and 1988 (after recycling) than in 1986. 137Cs has a half-life of 30 years On typical lowland soils it is more quickly immobilized and does not persist in the food chains. (After NERC, 1990.)

The Hidden Message Of Metaphors In Environmental Science

Industrial metabolism traces material and energy flows from initial extraction of resources through industrial and consumer systems to the final disposal of wastes. It makes explicit use of the mass balance principle. First developed by Ayres and collaborators in a series of papers and books (Ayres et al. 1989 Ayres 1989a, 1989b, 1993b, 1994b Ayres and Simonis 1994) industrial metabolism has become an important foundation of industrial ecology. Industrial metabolism can usefully be applied at many different levels globally, nationally, regionally, by industry, by company and by site. By invoking the parallel to biological metabolism, industrial metabolism analysis highlights the dramatic difference between natural and industrial metabolic processes, in particular the large difference in energy and material densities and fluxes and the lack of a primary producer (analogous to photosynthetic organisms) in the industrial world. Also, in natural systems, some nutrients flow in closed...

Stefan Bringezu and Yuichi Moriguchi

Understanding the structure and functioning of the industrial or societal metabolism is at the core of industrial ecology (Ayres 1989a see also Chapters 1, 2 and 3). Material flow analysis (MFA) refers to the analysis of the throughput of process chains comprising extraction or harvest, chemical transformation, manufacturing, consumption, recycling and disposal of materials. It is based on accounts in physical units (usually in terms of tons) quantifying the inputs and outputs of those processes. The subjects of the accounting are chemically defined substances (for example, carbon or carbon dioxide) on the one hand and natural or technical compounds or 'bulk' materials (for example, coal, wood) on the other hand. MFA has often been used as a synonym for material flow accounting in a strict sense the accounting represents only one of several steps of the analysis, and has a clear linkage to economic accounting.

How Is an Ecosystem Structured and Sustained

Figure 3.1 Depiction of materials flow through consumption-production systems. Straight arrows indicate flow from producer to consumer dashed arrows indicate loss due to metabolic processes and leaching curved arrows indicate self-regulating negative feedback. (a) An open system in which materials flow up the trophic chain and dissipate out of the system. (b) A closed system due to materials recycling via decomposition and due to self-regulating negative feedback. Figure 3.1 Depiction of materials flow through consumption-production systems. Straight arrows indicate flow from producer to consumer dashed arrows indicate loss due to metabolic processes and leaching curved arrows indicate self-regulating negative feedback. (a) An open system in which materials flow up the trophic chain and dissipate out of the system. (b) A closed system due to materials recycling via decomposition and due to self-regulating negative feedback. First, all spent and unused materials that are in limited...

Major Living Organisms of Ecosystems

The survival of any individual organism depends on the flow ofmatter and energy through its body. However, organisms in an ecosystem survive primarily through a combination of matter recycling and one-way energy flow. Decomposers complete the cycle of matter by breaking down detritus into inorganic nutrients that are usable by producers. Each type oforganism in an ecosystem uniquely plays a role in this flow ofenergy and in the flow and eventual recycling of matter.

Ecological Services Biodiversity and Restoration of Mine Areas

The term 'ecological services' refers to ecosystem pro cesses that are beneficial to human society. The older term 'ecosystem functions' refers to the same processes, but does not emphasize their benefits to humans. These benefits can be direct, for example, food production or water quality improvement by wetlands, or they can be indirect, such as degradation of leaf litter and subsequent mineralization and recycling of plant nutrients for continued growth of vegetation. The advantage of refer ring to such processes as ecological services is that a monetary value can be determined and compared with human made technologies that are supposed to do the same. This puts the benefits of intact ecosystems into a perspective that can be quantified, and easily understood by the general public. For example, what would it cost to turn solar energy into food through human made tech nologies rather than the natural process of growing crops

The technological model or bringing the incinerator back in

This is most clearly expressed in the area of waste. While the City introduced so-called Green Bins citywide in order to capture the socalled wet waste of households, it is struggling to find solutions to the continuingly growing mountain of common household waste, which escapes recycling and is being shipped by caravans of trucks along a more than 400 km long road to Michigan. As ecological modernization has gripped the material streams and waste habits of all Torontonians, it remains unclear whether the spirit of reduction can outlast the nagging aggressiveness of the proponents of more conventional methods of waste management and of technologically advanced forms of incineration.2 Waste streams have reached an impasse as old dumps are closing, new ones are not available, shipment of waste runs into public opposition along the trucks' route and in the recipient location on one hand, this has led to sophisticated new waste diversion strategies, which also rely on compliance...

Ecosystem Roles Of Native Pathogens And Insects

Haack and Byler (1993) have summarized the roles of native pathogens and insects in forest ecosystems. One role is a part of basic ecosystem process, that is, recycling carbon and other nutrients through decay. Others involve beneficial relationships with plants through mycorrhyzal symbiosis and pollination. Still others involve more complex interactions with wildlife and habitat. Pathogens and insects can serve as food sources for vertebrates, invertebrates, and microorganisms and create specific habitat components, such as dead standing and down trees, that provide decayed wood for nesting cavities or forage. They also regulate populations of woody and herbaceous vegetation directly or indirectly through forest succession.

Rechargeable batteries

Disposing of rechargeable batteries is a heck of a lot easier than disposing of single-use batteries, thank goodness Finding a location that collects dead rechargeable batteries to see that they're properly recycled can take less than a minute of your time, thanks to the nonprofit organization Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC). To find a rechargeable-battery recycling drop-off location near you, follow these steps To find out more about recycling other hopelessly useless electronics and electronic waste, check out Chapter 16.

Example A Piot For Germany 1990 A Functional Sixsector Version

C production of consumer goods for manufacturing and private households H household consumption activities, transformation of consumer goods P environmental protection services, collection and recycling of residuals in the same establishment and further treatment in external protection facilities or storage in controlled landfills.

What should be done to make household consumption sustainable

Environmental economists (Van den Bergh and Ferrer-i-Carbonell, 2000) argue that in studying consumer behaviour and seeking a comprehensive perspective on the limits and opportunities of sustainable consumption, at least five levels of 'consumer behaviour' need to be considered preferences, motivations, constraints, decisions based on given preferences, goals and constraints (e.g. environmental tax policies change not only prices but also incomes which will subsequently affect behaviour this aspect is often referred to as 'rebound', the unwanted change in behaviour which offsets technological efficiency improvements) and types of decisions relevant to environmental impact assessments (e.g. buying, use, reuse, recycling, repair, illegal dumping and waste treatment).

Future Directions For Research On Roots And Mycorrhizal Function And Biodiversity

Several recent studies of mycorrhizal function have noted the ways in which mycorrhiza facilitate nutrient uptake from a wide range of sources. For example, Perez-Moreno and Read (2001) measured an enhanced recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus from the necromass of nematodes in cultures with Betula pendula. In nonmycorrhizal treatments, the uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus was slightly greater, but

Urmila Diwekar and Mitchell J Small

Figure 11.1 presents a conceptual framework for industrial ecology applied at different scales of spatial and economic organization, evaluating alternative management options using different types of information, tools for analysis and criteria for performance evaluation. As one moves from the small scale of a single unit operation or industrial production plant to the larger scales of an integrated industrial park, community, firm or sector, the available management options expand from simple changes in process operation and inputs to more complex resource management strategies, including integrated waste recycling and re-use options. Special focus has been placed on implementing the latter via industrial symbiosis, for example, through the pioneering work of integrating several industrial and municipal facilities in Kalundborg, Denmark (Ehrenfeld and Gertler 1997). At higher levels of spatial and economic organization, for example, at national and, in recent years, global scales of...

The importance of waste

Fig. 3.1 This beach on the Spanish island of Mallorca shows what happens when a substance which is hard for organisms to break down (plastic) is added to a system over time. Plastic waste can now be found in quantity even on very remote beaches around the world (Barnes, 2002), as it is constantly being added to the marine system but only slowly broken down. Fig. 3.1 This beach on the Spanish island of Mallorca shows what happens when a substance which is hard for organisms to break down (plastic) is added to a system over time. Plastic waste can now be found in quantity even on very remote beaches around the world (Barnes, 2002), as it is constantly being added to the marine system but only slowly broken down. the time (e.g. Club Mosses and Ferns) used more lignin in their structure than later woody plants (Robinson, 1990). The key members of the modern lignin degrading guild are fungi, particularly Basidiomyetes, many of which produce the familiar 'mushroom' fruiting bodies. These...

Agencies Imparting Directionality

One sees in Polya's Urn how direction can evolve out of a stochastic background. The key within the process is the feedback that is occurring between the history of draws and the current one. Hence, in looking for the origins of directionality in real systems, we turn to consider feedback within living systems. Feedback, after all, has played a central role in much of what is known as the theory of self-organization (e.g. Eigen, 1971 Maturana and Varela, 1980 DeAngelis et al., 1986 Haken, 1988 Kauffman, 1995). Central to control and directionality in cybernetic systems is the concept of the causal loop. A causal loop, or circuit is any concatenation of causal connections whereby the last member of the pathway is a partial cause of the first. Primarily because of the ubiquity of material recycling in ecosystems, causal loops have long been recognized by ecologists (Hutchinson, 1948).

Comparing Different Types Of Impacts And Evaluation Of Total Impact

A cautious attitude is easy to understand if weighting results are seen as a 'verdicts' and if companies and responsible persons have limited ability to adapt to the 'law'. Representatives of the third world often mentioned LCIA and weighting in particular as a potential trade barrier. The industrial world might conceivably impose new requirements on the third world industry that it could not fulfill. However, if weighting is seen as comparing the overall outcome with different general environmental goals and public preferences, it may be less controversial (Bengtsson and Steen 2000). Those in favor of weighting claim that no choice between technical concepts can be made openly and transparently without weighting. If a formal weighting procedure is used the result is open for discussion and criticism. This is particularly valuable for a democratic process, as when the government develops guidelines for recycling or for use of some materials.

Thermodynamics and Conservation of Mass and Energy

Electrical engineering principles are constrained by these laws. Ecosystems are open systems that require a continual input of energy to maintain their structure and function. Two of the most inviolable principles of ecological science can be described as energy flow and material recycling. Material recycling

Efficiency Gains in Production

Considerable potentials for energy recovery from municipal organic waste and residues in agriculture and forestry exist. For example, the energetic use of wastes can provide the double benefit of waste management and energy provision. Residues from agriculture, forestry, and biomass-processing industries have great potential as feedstocks for stationary energy provision. To a more limited extent, second generation technologies for transport biofuels, when these become available, could also make use of residues. Energy recovery from waste and residues can save significant greenhouse gas emissions without requiring additional land. However, research is required with regard to the proper balance of residues remaining on the field for soil fertility and removal for energy, as well as with regard to nutrient recycling after energy recovery.

The Dematerialization Concept

This was confirmed in works of Larson, Ross and Williams (1986) who provided evidence of some earlier or pre-World War II downturns in materials IOU and of Clark and Flemings (1986) who demonstrated that technological processes cause fluctuations in the way in which materials are used. The implications of these insights are that levels of IOU change regularly for different materials and that cyclical swings in this index might be a better indicator of mineral industry adjustments than that of a declining trend. This view was also supported by Sterman (1985) who concluded from his systems dynamics research and analyses of IOU patterns that structural changes in the economy can be better described as following a cyclical rather than a declining trend pattern. Finally, Ayres and Ayres (1996) show how dematerialization can be better explained in terms of materials substitution and recycling strategies.

Steady State Analysis Energy and Nutrient Intensities

This is complex enough to allow feedback (recycling), yet simple enough to allow using standard algebra. All that is done here can be couched in matrix notation, and shorthand is useful for systems with many compartments, but algebra is more transparent.

Nutrient Cycling Flux and Dynamics

Figure 3 The ratio of nutrient elements recycling by a feeding homeostatic consumer as a function of the ratios of elements in its food. At low N P in the food, the homeostatic consumer retains N with high efficiency, recycling excess P, and hence the N P recycled is very low. In contrast, at high N P in the food, the homeostatic consumer retains P with high efficiency, releases relatively more N, and thus the N P recycled is very high. Homeostasis in the consumer causes this relationship to curve and the greater the ability of the consumer to retain the element limiting its own growth, the tighter the bend in the function. Figure 3 The ratio of nutrient elements recycling by a feeding homeostatic consumer as a function of the ratios of elements in its food. At low N P in the food, the homeostatic consumer retains N with high efficiency, recycling excess P, and hence the N P recycled is very low. In contrast, at high N P in the food, the homeostatic consumer retains P with high...

Increased Primary Production Can Reduce Food Chain Production

Study also involving Daphnia and a green alga (Figure 9), increased light intensity was shown to inhibit Daphnia population growth and trophic efficiency but eventually nutrient recycling by the Daphnia was able to increase algal nutrient content so that high grazer densities eventually were achieved. In a result that supports the idea that increased light intensity can result in grazer extinction, in this study one replicate vessel received especially high light intensity, which resulted in unusually high algal C P ratio and a Daphnia population that was never able to increase in abundance and was undergoing significant decline at the end of the experimental period.

Applied Systems Thinking

In this regard, the news is guardedly optimistic. The art and science of high-performance building is growing. The result is a new generation of buildings that require a fraction of the energy of conventional buildings, use materials screened for environmental effects, minimize water consumption, and are landscaped to promote biological diversity, moderate microclimates, and grow foods. The best of these are highly efficient, powered substantially by sunlight and feature daylight, water recycling, and interior green spaces. They are a finer calibration between our five senses and the built environment and tend to promote higher user satisfaction and productivity. The costs of building green, as it turns out, are not necessarily higher than conventional buildings while having lower operating costs. The goal is to design buildings as whole systems, not as disjointed components. The green building movement is now a worldwide movement and is transforming the practice of architecture,...

Timber From The Tropics

Seen from the point of view of resources, substitution with natural fibres is a positive step. The production energy will be considerably lower, and can be halved for some sheet products (Patel, 2002). Generally, composites are not very desirable since they involve irreversible mixing of materials, making material recycling practically impossible. In the case of bioplastics, this picture provides openings for improvement. In some cases the products may even be entirely compostable.

Environmental behaviour explained by motivations

Authors such as Thorgersen and Moisander have underlined the role of personal factors like perceptions, attitudes and emotions in motivations to adopt a behaviour that contributes to a better quality environment. They considered, for instance, the perception of a moral responsibility towards the protection of the environment, the perceived normative pressure, the perception of the identity of a responsible consumer with regard to the protection of the environment and perceived behavioural control. Among these motivations, Moisander (1999) distinguishes primary motivations (that engage in a general behavioural class such as 'to adopt ecological behaviour') and selective motivations (that generate a particular behaviour e.g. recycling, energy saving). She observes that the moral responsibility that people feel with regard to the protection of the environment and the perception of their identity as an ecological consumer are more powerful motivations than the others for adopting an...

Resource Depletion as an Impact Category

Resource depletion is one the central issues in the sustainability of mineral resources. Depletion is often included as an impact category of life cycle assessment, whereas resource use is sometimes classified merely as an item in the economic axis in a set of sustainability indicators (e.g., UNDPCSD 1996). There are different views on the availability of nonrenewable resources in Earth's crust. A recent exchange of views on copper availability (Gordon et al. 2006 Tilton and Lagos 2007 Gordon et al. 2007) clarified that there are additional factors involved besides physical abundance (a) potential constraints on traditional mining as a consequence of energy and water availability, (b) potential constraints on international trade, (c) substitution for virgin ore extraction by enhanced recycling and reuse, (d) growth in demand, and (e) technology change.

Challenges To Theory And Application Of Optimal Resource Extraction Models

The choice of discount rate reflects time preference and changes in an economy's productivity that result from converting biophysical resources into reproducible, humanmade capital. Not all of the energy and material resources, however, are used to provide goods and services for consumers or to produce new capital equipment. Some resources are used to produce and store the information that describes production processes. One may put a value on such accumulated knowledge in analyzing the economics of materials recycling and energy resource depletion, focusing on ways to preserve economic efficiency while addressing the issue of intergenerational equity (Page 1977 Ruth and Bullard 1993). Page proposed a 'conservation criterion' to ensure an intertemporally egalitarian distribution of exhaustible resources. This conservation criterion states that each generation that irreversibly depletes energy resources or highly concentrated ores has an ethical obligation to leave the next generation...

CH5 network internal amplification

It is sometimes observed in the environ mathematics of particular networks that substance introduced into one compartment at the boundary will appear more than once at another compartment, despite boundary dissipation in the interim. This is due to recycling, and it is easily seen how progressively diminishing fractions of a unit of introduced substance can cumulatively produce a sum over time in a limit process that exceeds the original amount. The second law cannot be defeated by this means, but energy cycling (Patten, 1985) following from open boundaries can compensate it and make it appear at least challenged in network organization. This is but one of numerous unexpected properties of networks contributed by cyclic interconnection and system openness.

Impacts Of Protozoa On Ecosystem Function

Loop, defined by Pomeroy (1974) as the rapid recycling of nutrients by protozoan grazers, is a powerful conceptual tool. In a fashion similar to that occurring in aquatic systems, rapidly feeding protozoa may consume one or more standing crops of bacteria in soil every year (Clarholm, 1985 Coleman, 1994). This tendency is particularly marked in the rhizosphere, which provides a ready food source for microbial prey.

Ecological Significance Of Fungalfungal Interactions

In addition to the critical process of nutrient recycling, several hymen-omycetes cause serious economically damaging disease in forest trees although these fungi are often classified as pathogens, they spend much of their lives acting saprotrophically. Examples include species in the genera Heterobasidion, Armillaria and Phellinus. Increased understanding of the dynamics of interspecific competition may lead to the development of additional management intervention techniques for reducing the impact of these pathogens. The application of spore suspensions of P. gigantea to stumps of felled conifers, as a biological control of H. annosum, is well established (Holdenrieder and Greig, 1998). Other aggressive combatants, e.g. R. bicolor, may also be candidates for use as biological control agents (Holmer and Stenlid, 1997b).

Geological Stocks and Prospects for Nonrenewable Resources

Most geologists view Earth's stock of mineral resources as finite. Even economists, many of whom view the stock as more flexible, recognize that some limit will eventually be reached. Recycling and substitution postpone the problem of exhaustion, but do not resolve it. The outlook for stocks depends, in part, on the energy that is required to mine and process mineral resources into a useable form. In general, processing requires more energy than mining, so resources used in mineral and rock forms that do not require processing have larger stocks. The best quantitative estimate for stocks of known (discovered) conventional mineral deposits is the reserve-base estimate of the U.S. Geological Survey. Data for 2007 show that the global reserve base can supply current consumption for periods ranging from a low of about 15 years for diamond to a high of about 4400 years for perlite, and an arithmetic mean of about 350 years. Most estimates of undiscovered stocks of conventional mineral...

Selecting Treatment Technologies

Before implementing any in-plant controls or pretreatment alternatives, the industry should first explore ways to reduce production of specific pollutants and then examine the feasibility of recycling or reusing the wastewater generated during production. For example, the concentrated solution obtained from cleanup operations can be recycled as part of the starting materials for the next production run. Additional steps for reducing wastewater requiring treatment include good housekeeping practices spill control measures, such as spill containment enclosures and drip trays around tanks and eliminating wet floor areas.

Historical Use Of Material For Physical Goods In The

The use of minerals and metals for physical goods in the USA has been documented by the US Geological Survey (1900-23, 1996-present) and the US Bureau of Mines (1924-95) in their Minerals Yearbooks. Beginning around 1990, the area of concern was expanded to include physical goods produced from all sources, including forest, agricultural and non-renewable organic resources. Owing to the continuity and level of detail with which these data were compiled, reliable information is available for the entire 20th century. An overview of these data, disaggregated by material source, is presented in Figure 22.2 and again in Figure 22.3 in a semi-logarithmic format. (See Table 22A.1 for the data underlying these figures.) The quantities shown are the annual apparent inputs to the use phase (domestic production + imports + recycling - exports) of each processed commodity flow aggregated by material source category. The quantities of material

Mutualistic Interactions

Litter- and wood-degrading basidiomycetes have developed strategies for suboptimal concentrations of nitrogen in their substrates. These strategies include recycling of nitrogen from senescent mycelium, reallocation from intracellular stored proteins and uptake and translocation of nitrogen from soil to wood litter (Cowling and Merrill, 1966 Watkinson et al., 2001 Lindahl and Finlay, 2005). As mentioned in the previous section, it has been proposed that lysis of bacteria may be another strategy in which saprotrophic basidiomycetes obtain nitrogen (Greaves, 1971 Tsuneda and Thorn, 1994b). This hypothesis can be extended to a mutualistic predatory relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria that are adapted to grow in the vicinity of wood-degrading basidiomycetes may provide a continuous source of nitrogen to the fungi. A mutualistic predatory relationship would imply that only some of the bacteria

Deteriorating Ore Resources

For primary metals1 for at least many decades, even with increased levels of dematerialization (i.e., the reduction in the amount of energy and materials required for the production of consumer goods or the provision of services) and recycling. While the potential for the discovery of new high grade (i.e., metal content) resources2 exists, it is almost inevitable that ore resources will deteriorate over time as higher grade resources are exploited and progressively depleted. Figure 8.1 charts, for example, the decline in grade of copper, lead, and gold ores in the United States and Australia over the past century. In addition, many of the newer ore resources are fine-grained, requiring finer grind sizes to achieve mineral liberation. Both of these effects, either combined or in isolation, increase the amount of energy and water resources required for primary metal production. This interaction between energy, water, and metallic ore resources will have a significant impact on the...

Short Environmental Encyclopedia

Reused or recycled, i.e. turned into something useful. Recycling helps conserve the environment. There is no real difference between reuse and recycling. They mean that the objects can be used again. Either way a lot of waste is avoided. For example, milk bottles are reused many times, at least 30 times, before they are melted down to be remade, to be recycled.

Indirect Effects Of Exploitation

Food webs including microorganisms must also account for the presence of decomposer organisms. These organisms are not predators because they do not directly impact population dynamics of a prey while obtaining their resources. Decomposer organisms obtain energy or nutrients from previously dead organisms or their by-products. This decomposition is critical to the recycling of nutrients that can be used in primary production. Decomposer organisms affect population dynamics of primary producers by supplying nutrients and often by competing with primary producers for the same resources (immobilization).

The durability of concrete products

13.2.3 Recycling The value of in situ concrete in terms of recycling is low. It can, however, be crushed and ground to aggregate. The majority has to be sorted and used as landfill. In theory, steel can also be recycled from reinforcement, though this is a complex process using machines for crushing the concrete, electromagnets for separating, etc. Until 1950, smooth circular steel bars were used which were much easier to remove from concrete. Fibre reinforcement has no recycling potential. Constructions consisting of prefabricated components such as blocks and slabs have considerably better recycling possibilities. By using mechanical fixings or mortar joints that make easy dismantling possible, the whole component can be re-used. The mortar used for construction with concrete blocks is usually produced with strong Portland cement. The construction is, therefore, very difficult to disassemble without destroying the blocks. Alternatives are the different lime mortars, mainly based on...

Overview Of Mfa And Other Ie Studies Material Flow Analysis Accounting

Interindustrial flows of some individual materials such as non-ferrous metals have been studied mainly from the viewpoint of material recycling (Clean Japan Center 1997). Substance flow analysis (SFA), which captures the flow of specific elements of environmental concern, was applied to some case studies, such as with an analysis of nitrogen flow and its impacts on eutrophication. The SFA framework for toxic substances has yet to be explicitly adopted.

Input Output Analysis with Environmental Extension

More recently, application of IOA to the issues of waste management and recycling has become very active. A Waste Input-Output (WIO) model was proposed (Nakamura 2000) to describe an interdependence of goods-producing sectors and waste management sectors, in which both monetary and physical flows were dealt with. Description of whole material flows within the economy and their interaction with the environment has also been attempted, linking sectoral IO studies and macroscopic MFA studies. Learning from the German pioneering experiences in PIOT (physical input-output tables see Stahmer et al. 1998), a framework of 3DPIOT (three-dimensional PIOT) is being proposed (Figure 24.1), and case studies are being undertaken (Moriguchi 1997). These environmentally extended IO studies have many features in common with MFA studies.

Ecology of the Hudson River Zooplankton Community

Abstract Zooplankton in the Hudson River estuary include both freshwater and estuarine species and range in body lengths from microns to millimeters. Measurements of abundance and biomass as well as community rate processes indicate that Zooplankton do not generally exert significant grazing pressure on phytoplankton. In addition, recycling of nutrients by Zooplankton is not significant to primary producers because concentrations of dissolved nutrients are quite high in the Hudson and controlled by other processes. Zooplankton do provide an important linkage in the food web as they are key prey items for many young-of-year fish as well as fish that are primarily planktivorous throughout life. Long-term observations indicate many Zooplankton populations undergo regular seasonal cycles in abundance, typically with increases during warm, low-flow periods of the year. The invasion of the zebra mussel into the Hudson had strong impacts on Zooplankton in the freshwater section of the...

Process Microbiology

Although floc-formers are mainly selected by the settling and recycling process, activated sludge can become dominated by filamentous bacteria. This situation is frequently associated with poor settlement characteristics. Researchers have shown that increasing the mean residence time of the cells enhances settling characteristics of biological floc (Forster 1985).

Types Of Structural Walls

Modern methods of structural framework usetimber very economically, but it is seldom easy to recycle. The many and very strong fixings used make the demolished structure suitable only for recycling as pulped raw material for production of wood based boards or burningforenergy recovery.'Traditional timber framing is more flexible, and easy to dismount and move, or modify. Stovewood constructions originate in the nineteenth century and represent a building tradition of recycling, where bits of plank and spill from the sawmills are built up into walls using a mortar of pure clay mixed with water and sawdust or chaff (Figure 13.49). A similar tradition is based on cordwood, sometimes set in lime mortar.

Colorado Springs Treatment Plant

Both the lime and the activated-carbon systems have recycling loops that use multiple-hearth furnaces to regenerate some of the chemicals used. The recycled lime was found to be more effective in raising the pH than fresh lime. The recycled lime dosage is 280 mg l, and the dosage for new lime is 325 mg l.

Evaluating Computer Manufacturers Levels of Greenness

The Greenpeace Guide to Greener Electronics, which I discuss at length in Chapter 9, helpfully ranks the top 18 consumer electronics manufacturers of TVs, computers, video game consoles, and cellphones based on their policies on toxic chemicals, recycling, and climate change.

Australias National Material Intensity

Unfortunately, data are not available to calculate accurately Australia's 'total material consumption' and 'total material emissions', and thus its national material intensity. However, the above sections on inputs, outputs and materials stocked provide a preliminary indication that Australia's current industrial ecology is highly material-intensive. Inefficient levels of recycling, waste mining, dematerialization and dissipative resource use control also inhibit closing of the materials cycle, thus hindering the development of a sustainable Australian industrial ecology.

Definitions and Principles

OF is a farming system that uses environmentally friendly methods of weed, pest, and disease control. It bans the use ofsynthetic pesticides and fertilizers, empha sizes animal welfare in animal breeding, takes care of the overall harmony of agroenvironmental system and of its biological diversity, and gives priority to renewable sources of energy and to recycling of raw materials.

Indirect competition See competition

Industrial ecology The study of the flow of energy and materials from their natural sources through the manufacturing process and its products to their final disposal or recycling. It provides useful information for devising strategies to minimize pollution and reduce the consumption of energy, water, and other resources.

Evolution of Systems and Emergence of Orientors and Goal Functions

The dissipative structures of the global ecosystem are constructed and maintained by a finite rate of exergy input (mostly solar energy) and a finite stock of materials. The global ecosystem is therefore forced to recycle all of its essential material resources. The development of local ecosystems is constrained by the local rate of exergy flux (solar radiation input) and by the local rate of material recycling (weathering rate, absorption rate, decomposition rate, etc.) that it produces. direction (arrow of time) of specialization, speciation, synergy, complexification, diversity, maximum through-flow of exergy, and more efficient use of material resources. This development becomes manifest in the corresponding emergent properties exergy degradation, recycling, minimization of output, efficiency of internal flows, homeostasis and adaptation, diversity, hetero-geneousness, hierarchy and selectivity, organization, minimization of maintenance costs, storage of available resources. These...

Environmental Profiles Of Structural Materials Reading Guidelines For Table 138

The environmentalevaluationsareratedwith best 1,average 2andworstalter-native 3.The Environmental potential columns indicate potentials for recycling and local production.The final environmental profile is suggested on the basis of subjective judgement from the author and is open to debate. On the basis of information in Table 1.4 and Table 2.8 alternative evaluations can be made. Also note the results in the GWP column, since global warming potential is often considered as a relevant overall indicator for environmental impacts. Recycling

How can we help the environment

One of the ways is to buy green products that do not harm the environment recycled paper, wood from sustainable sources, organic fruit and vegetables. When they say about recycling they mean to take materials that have already been used, and to put them through a special process so that they can be used again. When they say about sustainable sources they mean that wood, for example, is from a forest where the trees can be replaced as quickly as they are cut down.

Coagulation Followed By Settling

Figure 7.34.15 shows a conventional system where rapid mixing of the cationic inorganic coagulant is done in the comminutor (a mix tank can also be used), and the water is then fed to the primary clarifier. The anionic polyelectrolyte flocculant is injected into the wastewater line before the clarifier unit. A moving scraper collects the settled floc and removes it to the sludge outlet. Recycling part of the floc usually improves clarification efficiency.

Coagulation Followed By Flotation

Recycling pressurization is used when the floc formed cannot be pressurized and large quantities of air must be dissolved. In this scheme (see Figure 7.34.18), the addition of coagulants and flocculants precedes the flotation step. A side stream of the clarified effluent is air-pressurized. When extended floc formation time is required, this method is particularly applicable. The pressurization components are less prone to solids build-up in this system.

Soluble Organics Removal

The activated-sludge process, developed in England in the early 1900s, is remarkably successful at removing soluble organics from wastewater (Junkins, Deeny, and Eckhoff 1983 Tchobanoglous and Burton 1991 Vesilind and Pierce 1982). In an air-sparged tank (see Section 7.25), live microorganisms rapidly adsorb, then slowly oxidize these organics to carbon dioxide and water. At the same time, these organisms reproduce. The process removes the microorganism sludge by settling, while digestion of adsorbed organics continues, which activates the sludge for recycling.

Characteristic Metabolic Profile Of Societies The Postindustrial Pattern

A second new feature in industrial metabolism is the growth dynamic, which is different from the agrarian mode of production not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Whereas in agrarian societies production is limited by land availability and by the solar energy system, industrial society seems to possess limitless energetic resources. A further feature of the system is its low capacity for recycling. Currently, much less than 10 per cent of yearly throughput, outside of water and air, are kept within the recycling loops. It is even doubtful that the recycling potential can be raised significantly owing to the fact that many materials (such as fuels) cannot be recycled at all.

Waste Metal Processing

Once the valence of the metal is established, environmental engineers should start process estimates. Destroying metal complexes before the ion exchange resin is used may be useful. The amount of competing ions should be reduced if possible. If rinse water is deionized prior to the process, economic saving in the recycling of waste rinse waters and the recovery of valuable metals can be achieved.

Population Growth and Natural Resources

Population growth, including the spread of humans into natural habitats, causes the loss of biodiversity. Many organisms provide essential service for agriculture and other aspects of human life. For example, if bees were lost, approximately 33 of all world food would be lost. The organisms in the soil play a vital role in recycling waste organic matter and contribute to soil formation. For example, the earthworms and fungi in the soil weigh more than 3000 kg per ha. The average weight of humans per hectare in the US is only 68 kg.

Through Waste Exchanges Type

Many businesses recycle and donate or sell recovered materials through third party dealers to other organizations. Historically, scrap dealers have organized in this fashion, as have charities such as the Salvation Army. More recently, municipal recycling programs have become third parties for commercial and residential customers who supply recovered materials that are transported through the municipality to manufacturers such as glass plants and paper mills. This form of exchange is typically one-way and is generally focused at the end-of-life stage. Waste exchanges formalize trading opportunities by creating hard copy or on-line lists of materials one organization would like to dispose of and another organization might need. The scale of trades can be local, regional, national or global and can involve highly specialized chemicals or even lists of items needed by area charities. The exchanges accomplish various input-output savings on a trade-by-trade basis, rather than...

Nitrifying Nitrogen Removal Systems

The demand and applications for nitrogen removal from wastewater have steadily increased. For example, waste-water treatment plants discharging directly to aquifers are required to remove nitrates to limit drinking water contamination. A large amount of full-scale experience is available in nitrifying denitrifying systems. This section reviews nitrogen removal systems in two categories systems that do and do not use internal recycling streams. It also provides flow schemes.

Influence of the Impoundment on the River

The characteristics of outflow water differ between shallow and deep impoundments. The quality of outflow from a shallow, homogeneously mixed impoundment is likely to be similar to that of its inflow or, if not, to be poorer rather than improved. The concentration of bio-available phosphate is not much altered within shallow basins, despite high primary production, because frequent resuspension of bottom sediment speeds the rate of phosphorus recycling. On the other hand, presently incomplete evaluations suggest that nitrogen, especially nitrate, may be significantly decreased. Because primary production is vertically confined and there can be relatively low light absorption in short water columns that do not suffer from high inorganic turbidity, the

Among Firms Organized Virtually across a Broader Region Type

Given the high cost of moving and other critical variables that enter into decisions about corporate location, very few businesses will relocate solely to be part of an industrial symbiosis. In recognition of this, the model of Type 5 exchanges depends on virtual linkages rather than on co-location. While virtual eco-industrial parks are still place-based enterprises, Type 5 exchanges allow the benefits of industrial symbiosis to be expanded to encompass a regional economic community in which the potential for the identification of by-product exchanges is greatly increased owing simply to the number of firms that can be engaged. An additional attractive feature is the potential to include small outlying agricultural and other businesses, possibly by pipeline, as in Kalundborg, or by truck for those farther out. It could be argued that self-organized groups such as the network of scrap metal dealers, agglomerators and dismantlers who feed particular mills or subsystems such as...

Organizational Arrangements and Transaction Costs

Other forms of industrial organization more common outside the USA have some relevance to the emergence of symbiotic arrangements (Lenox 1995). The cross-ownership structure of the Japanese keiretsu is a highly elaborated form of integration in which the transaction costs and risks could be spread among potential participants in an exchange of by-products. Another possibility is central ownership as is found in Germany where banks may own substantial equity, and participate actively, in the management of a number of firms. Other financial institutions could play a similar role. Schwarz and Steininger (1995) point to an extensive recycling network among firms in the Styria region of Austria, acknowledging that the activity is largely unconscious and thus uncoordinated. To reduce the coordinative problems with eco-industrial parks discussed above, some form of common ownership or institutional management power vested in the developer of the park can improve the context for the emergence...

Indirect Effects and Industrial Ecology

This article would be incomplete without mentioning of studies and methods used in 'industrial ecology'. Industrial ecology is based on the analogy between natural and industrial ecosystems, and aims to facilitate the development of industrial recycling and cascading cooperative systems by minimizing the energy consumption, generation of wastes, emissions, and input of raw materials. Complex interplay among system components has been taken into account in a large number of waste management and industrial ecology studies. Consequently, throughout the second half of the last and the beginning of the present century, some substantial progress has been made in various aspects of industrial One of the commonly used methods of industrial ecology is 'life cycle assessment' (LCA). It studies the environmental aspects and potential impacts throughout a product's life (commonly referred to as cradle to grave approach), from raw material acquisition through production, use, and disposal, and the...

Evolutionary Role of Indirect Effects

It should be noted, that indirect effects are important for the evolution of not only natural, but also industrial ecosystems. Traditionally, human society has developed without the necessary due respect to the rules and processes governing the stability of its environment. However, by analogy with natural ecosystems (i.e., as regards recycling and cascading networks) industrial ecosystems should aim to facilitate the development of recycling and cascading cooperative systems by minimizing the energy consumption, generation of wastes, emissions, and input of raw materials.

Topdown and bottomup effects on periphyton

Members of the periphyton are subject to a combination of top-down control through grazing and bottom-up control through nutrient availability. Both can dominate in a given ecosystem, and can act separately or synergistically. For instance, high grazing pressure can counteract nutrient limitation by reducing the thickness of the periphyton mat, thereby enhancing water circulation and nutrient uptake, and by recycling nutrients through excretion. In turn, nutrient enrichment may allow periphyton to accommodate higher grazing pressure. In some instances

Facilitating The Evolution Of Symbioses

Kalundborg illustrates that there is enormous potential for environmental improvement through industrial symbiosis. Positive applications include increasing energy efficiency through co-generation and by-product re-use, recycling gray (used) water to achieve overall reduction in drawdowns, recovering solvents and re-using many, diverse residue streams that need not be rejected as wastes. Other non-material-based linkages, such as jointly planning transport networks and sharing office, information, or security services, also have potential for environmental improvement. Given these advantages, one might ask why more companies are not engaged in these types of projects.

Top Down Entire Industrial Systems

The direct relevance of these ecological system measures to industrial systems is evident, especially when recycling of resources is of major interest. As a result these ecological measures have recently been introduced into industrial ecology in, for example, analyzing material flow in the nylon tufted carpet industry.

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