Make Money in the Recycling Business

Home Based Recycling Business

Make Money! Join the many individuals and families who are learning to prosper in the salvage and recycling business starting with little or no cash. You'll learn: How to bootstrap your business without going into debt. How to get your salvage for free or for pennies on the dollar. (In some cases you will be paid to take the material away). How to find the best price in the least amount of time. The tools and equipment you will need many easily fabricated. Information based on my experience in salvage, recycle and reuse in the following areas: Construction and building materials. Deconstruction and recycled lumber. Farm and ranch equipment and supplies. Heavy equipment salvaging for high value parts. Scrap metal ferrous and non-ferrous. Electronic, communication, and computer scrap and recycling. Salvage for alternative energy systems. Antiques and collectibles. Promoting and marketing. Always treating everyone with fairness and respect and not profiting from the misfortune of others ways to create win-win situations for All parties involved. How to deal with scrap and recycling dealers and brokers. Innovative businesses you can start using various salvaged materials. How to arrange transportation, interim storage, cheap yard space without dealing with high cost commercial operators. How to be paid for your work before you ever start. How to get the equipment and tools you need. How to stay solvent and operate on a cash basis. Continue reading...

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Additional Separation And Recycling

Perhaps the most extreme examples of separation and recycling are purge streams. Purges deal with both feed impurities and the by-products of the reaction. Purifying the feed can reduce the size of some purges. However, if purification is not practical or the purge must remove a byproduct of the reaction, additional separation is necessary. Figure 3.8.10 shows the recovery of acetone from an aqueous waste stream by distillation. As the fractional recovery of acetone increases when the reflux ratio is fixed, the cost of column and auxiliary equipment increases. Alternately, fixing the number of plates in the column eliminates additional column cost, and increasing recovery by increasing the reflux ratio increases the energy consumption for separation. For each fractional recovery, a tradeoff exists between the capital and the energy required to obtain the optimum reflux ratio. The result is that the cost of separation (capital and energy) increases with increasing recovery (see Figure...

Combined Domestic and Industrial Wastewaters

In combined waste from many sources, the SS content is still too low (0.1 ) to be filtered. The most common problem in solids removal from municipal plus industrial waste is an increased proportion of dissolved impurities. Table 7.47.2 shows typical figures (yearly averages) for two currently operating plants (A and B) handling high proportions of industrial waste. Little experience is available in filtration of this type of settled primary sludge. Anaerobic digested sludge derived only from domestic waste is easily dewatered on the coil or belt filter (see Figure 7.47.2), but the same sludge derived from mixed domestic and industrial waste often has filtration problems. When the primary digesters receive excessive quantities of toxic chemicals, hair, fibers, bristles, grease, polymers, or gelatinous proteins, the digestion process can be retarded or interrupted, creating filtration problems. When digesters operate continuously on primary settled sludge containing a high percentage of...

Solid Waste Incineration

The destruction of solid waste by fluidized-bed incineration has two thermal processes. The first is combustion, in which organic materials are burned in the presence of oxygen the second is pyrolysis, in which the decomposition of solids takes place in the presence of an inert gas at a high temperature. The products of the combustion reaction are totally oxidized, whereas the pyrolysis reaction yields hydrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide, which are unoxidized products. The reactions of each are as follows Solid waste + Oxygen mb si*oCO2 + H2O + Ash + Heat Solid waste + Inert gas --- * The advantages of using fluidized beds for the destruction of solid waste materials include the following The disadvantages of using fluidized beds for solid waste incineration are as follows 4. Auxiliary fuel is usually necessary because the composition and heating value of solid waste vary.

Recycling 1153 ELVs From Theory to Practice

Of data, supported by a good mass balance based on data reconciliation, and the corresponding statistics and how this should be performed when carrying out experiments or auditing a plant. This theory is essential to characterize and control the material and element flows in recycling plants and through the complete recycling system, which is extremely important for good metal material accounting, the calculations of recycling rate on a sound statistical basis, as well as quality control of recycling streams. In fact this is the basis of any meaningful discussion on 'material and metal ecology'. Experimental and industrial data on the composition of the car, the separation efficiency of the various processes, liberation and particle-size reduction in the shredder, the quality (or grade) of the recycling (intermediate) material streams is typical information that becomes available through a good understanding of the theory of recycling as discussed in the previous section. Furthermore,...

Flows And Compositions Of Waste Streams And The Use Of Wastes As Raw Materials

Collecting information on the flow rates and compositions of waste streams is difficult. Data on waste streams and emissions are scarce, scattered and often inconsistent. Table 32.1 is a compilation of some of the data available on waste stream flows in the USA. Examination of this table indicates that some data are collected annually. Other data may be collected less than once a decade. Data are often reported separately for emissions to air, water and land. Data are also segregated by the characteristics of the wastes (for example, hazardous or non-hazardous). Confounding this scattering of information is the fact that units, reporting periods and the identification of the facilities reporting the wastes or emissions are generally not consistent between different sources of data. Nevertheless, with significant effort, diverse data on waste stream flow rates and emissions can be assembled into a comprehensive picture of material flows. Material flows in the USA will be used as an...

Fluctuations in Solid Waste Quantities

Weakness in the economy generally reduces the quantity of solid waste generated. This reduction is particularly true for commercial and industrial MSW and construction and demolition debris. Data quantifying the effect of economic downturns on solid waste quantity are not readily available. The generation of solid waste is usually greater in warm weather than in cold weather. Figure 10.3.1 shows two month-to-month patterns of MSW generation. The less variable pattern is a composite of data from eight locations with cold or moderately cold winters (Camp Dresser & McKee Inc. 1992, 1991 Child, Pollette, and Flosdorf 1986 Cosulich Associates 1988 HDR Engineering, Inc. 1989 Killam Associates 1990 North Hempstead 1986 Oyster Bay 1987). Waste generation is relatively low in the winter but rises with temperature in the spring. The surge of waste generation in the spring is caused both by increased human activity, including spring cleaning, and renewed plant growth and associated yard waste....

Purposes of Solid Waste Characterization

The general purpose of solid waste characterization is to promote sound management of solid waste. Specifically, characterization can determine the following The potential for recycling or composting portions of the waste stream. The effectiveness of waste reduction programs, recycling programs, or bans on the disposal of certain materials. Potential sources of environmental pollution in the waste. In practice, the immediate purpose of most waste characterization studies, including many extensive studies, is to comply with specific regulatory mandates and to provide information for use by vendors in preparing bids to design, construct, and operate solid waste management facilities. The purposes of a waste characterization program determine the design of it. If all waste is to be landfilled, the characterization program should focus on the quantity of waste, its density, and its potential for compaction. The composition of the waste and its chemical characteristics are relatively...

Pyrolysis Of Solid Waste

Pyrolysis is an alternate to incineration for volume reduction and partial disposal of solid waste. A large portion of MSW is composed of long-chain hydrocarbonaceous material such as cellulose, rubber, and plastic. This organic material represents a storehouse of organic building blocks that could be retained as organic carbon. Pyrolysis is a process that is less regressive than incineration and recovers much of the chemical energy.

Definition of Solid Waste

Solid waste need not literally be a solid. It may be a solid, a semisolid, a liquid, or a contained gaseous material. In accordance with RCRA regulations, a solid waste is any discarded material that is not specifically excluded by the regulation or excluded by granting of a special variance by the regulatory agency. Discarded material is considered abandoned, recycled, or inherently wastelike. Materials are considered abandoned if they are disposed of, burned or incinerated, or accumulated, stored, or treated (but not recycled) before being abandoned. Materials are considered recycled if they are recycled or accumulated, stored, or treated before recycling. However, materials are considered solid waste if they are used in a manner constituting disposal, burned for energy recovery, reclaimed, or accumulated speculatively. Table 11.1.1 presents various classes of materials and general situations in which they would be considered solid wastes. Inherently wastelike materials are solid...

Current Municipal Solid Waste Management Practices

Today, municipal solid waste (MSW) is a stream that comes primarily from residences and small commercial enterprises, and is mostly non-hazardous. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency definition followed here, MSW includes durable and non-durable goods, containers and packaging, food wastes, yard wastes and miscellaneous inorganic wastes from residential, commercial, institutional and industrial sources (USEPA 2000). The EPA definition excludes industrial waste, agricultural waste, sewage sludge and hazardous wastes including batteries and medical waste. Americans generate increasing quantities of municipal solid waste, whether measured in total tons or kilograms per capita (USEPA 2000). Containers and packaging are the largest fraction of this waste stream (33 per cent in 1995) and non-durable goods are the most rapidly growing fraction (USEPA 2000). Disposing of municipal solid waste has become increasingly costly and centralized. In the early 1970s, municipal solid...

Product Design and Fundamental Recycling Optimization Models

The design of a product is linked to recycling as depicted in Figure 4. The design does affect how materials are liberated during shredding, how efficient materials can be separated, and what the composition and quality of the recyclates will be. This determines if these recyclates can be recycled or not, therefore what the losses will be from the recycling chain. The control of the recycling chain determines what the qualities of the streams are and whether or not the recycling rate is high. This in essence determines whether materials and metals can be recycled, hence the pivot of 'industrial ecology of the materials and metals' within the car. This section will discuss the various factors influencing Product Design, the 'Metal Wheel', and Recycling Technology In general an increased complexity of recycling pyro-metallurgy has arisen through the development and design of modern consumer products (such as passenger vehicles and consumer electronics). The consequence is the formation...

Solid Waste Treatment

Biodegradation of dead plant, animal, and other residues has played an important role on our planet's surface since the inception of life eons ago, recycling valuable nutrients back into our biosphere while negating or at least reducing the shear physical burden of this never-ending natural debris stream. At least in theory, therefore, nature provides a highly useful example of a means by which we might manage our own solid waste residuals, taking full advantage of much the same aerobic and anaerobic degradative mechanisms. The level of success presently realized in using biology effectively as a management process for human solid waste residuals has, however, considerable room for improvement. At the low end of this spectrum of biochemically engineered solid waste management strategies, the majority of municipal detritus generated by the world's current leader in per-capita solid waste production (i.e., the United States) follows a least-cost disposal Figure 16.56 Solid waste...

Recycling Gadgets the Green

Although the third R of green gadgets is recycle, it doesn't necessarily mean that the items you want to dispose of will be broken down into parts and ground up, melted, or otherwise destroyed. As I say in the preceding section, the terms recycle and reuse are sometimes interchangeable. For example, if you have someone repair or update a working gadget or computer that you don't want or need and then put it back into someone else's hands, that process qualifies as both recycling and reusing. And yes, a bit of rethinking and reducing take place in the mix. Why do I talk more about trying to reuse or repurpose gadgets instead of sending them off to a recycler Here's where the rethinking comes into play. Think about recycled paper. It comes from existing paper that is collected, processed, and then repurposed as new paper. By selling a gadget or giving it away, you're repurposing it, but you're also essentially recycling it. What's cool here is that you're skipping the processing part of...

Recycling Waste Streams Directly

Flowchart Decision

If waste streams can be recycled directly, this way is clearly the simplest to reduce waste and should be considered first. Most often, the waste streams that can be recycled directly are aqueous streams which, although contaminated, can be substituted for part of the freshwater feed to the process. FIG. 3.8.1 Four general ways in which waste from the separation and recycling systems can be minimized. FIG. 3.8.1 Four general ways in which waste from the separation and recycling systems can be minimized.

Aerobic Fluidized Bed Treatment of Industrial Wastewater

Figure 7.35.11 shows the Celgene fluidized-bed reactor. This reactor suspends carbon particles with the immobilized biomass in an upflow of 29 m hr. This flow gives a 35-50 bed expansion (measured with a reflective IR-level detector). The time per pass is 8 min. With a total wastewater residence time of 400 min, the recycling ratio is 50. The reactor injects oxygen from a PSA unit into the reactor recycling loop. A reactor effluent of DO 35 ppm controls oxygen addition. Particles with excess biomass rise to the top of the reactor. Here, the biomass is knocked off with a slowly rotating peddle and carried with the effluent to the clarifier. Manville and Louisiana State University used a flu-idized-bed system at Ciba-Geigy's St. Gabriel plant site to lower the sodium chloroacetate level in a 3-4 saline waste stream from 6000 to 10 ppm (Attaway et al. 1988). They used a 0.25-inch, diatomaceous-earth carrier with a pore structure optimized for microbe immobilization in two bioreactors in...

Implications For Solid Waste Management

This section addresses several aspects of the relationship between the characteristics of solid waste and the methods used to manage it. Implications for waste reduction, recycling, composting, incineration, and landfilling are included, as well as general implications for solid waste management as a whole. MSW is abundant, unsightly, and potentially odorous contains numerous potential pollutants and supports both disease-causing organisms and disease-carrying organisms. Like MSW, bulky solid waste is abundant, unsightly and potentially polluting. In addition, the dry, combustible nature of some bulky waste components can pose a fire hazard. Because of these characteristics of MSW and bulky waste, a prompt, effective, and reliable system is required to isolate solid waste from people and the environment. A beneficial use of solid waste is relatively difficult because it contains many different types of materials in a range of sizes. The only established use for unprocessed MSW is as...

Deconstruction And Recycling

The method of fixing very largely determines to what extent a product can be disassembled for re-use, material recycling or energy recovery. Mechanical connections are clearly preferable. Components fixed with adhesives or mortars will, in many cases, be difficult to disassemble that may also require onerous cleaning.

Effluent Recycling Pump

York used this value to design a large 10-mgd plant (1577 m3 hr) with five, parallel, fluidized-bed reactors at the Bay Park Wastewater Treatment Plant in Nassau County, New York (Jeris, Owens, and Flood 1981). These five reactors with a combined volume of 1000 m3 operated at an up-flow rate of 37 m hr and a recycling ratio of 4.6. A PSA oxygen generator provided 6 tn day of oxygen (5443 kg day). The plant had various operating difficulties controlling microbial growth was the most problematic. The plant was shut down in 1991.

Alteration of Community Composition and Ecosystem Dynamics through the Stoichiometry of Recycling

When we place these specific stoichiometric recycling effects into the context of complete, complex ecosystems, a variety of interesting dynamics result. For example, as we just saw, terrestrial plant species that produce low-nutrient litter will have a depressive effect on mineralization rates in their vicinity. A low mineralization rate will reduce primary productivity, lower plant biomass, and raise light nutrient ratios. These conditions in turn will favor particular plant species that are good nutrient competitors. Because one factor that can improve a species' competitive ability for a given nutrient is a low content of that nutrient in its leaves, a cycle of positive feedback is favored with good nutrient competitors altering nutrient cycling in their vicinity in such a way as to improve their chances of success against other species. Figure 5 The rate of breakdown of terrestrial detritus depends strongly on stoichiometry. The higher the C N or C P ratio, the slower the leaf...

Solid Waste

The RCRA defines solid waste as any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural operations, and from community activities (RCPA 1004, 42 USC 6903 27 ). The remainder of the definition excludes certain materials from solid waste, thus omitting them from solid waste regulation under the RCRA. States are encouraged to develop solid waste management plans which enable waste to be controlled on a local level. While the RCRA does not directly regulate state solid waste programs, it directs the EPA to develop guidelines for states to follow. These guidelines are developed under subtitle D of the act. In addition, the RCRA establishes minimum requirements upon which states can model solid waste plans. The requirements prohibit open dumping of solid waste and...

Recycling

Reuse and recycling (waste recovery) can provide a cost-effective waste management approach. This technique can help reduce costs for raw materials and waste disposal and possibly provide income from a salable waste. However, waste recovery should be considered in conjunction with source control options. Waste reuse and recycling entail one or a combination of the following options

Urban solid waste

Sydney urban solid waste data indicate data typical of urban Australia. Currently, the annual disposal rate of urban solid waste in Sydney is about 3.4 million tons and rising rapidly (WMA 1990). The vast majority of urban solid waste in Australia is disposed of in landfills (89 per cent and 100 per cent in New South Wales and Victoria, respectively, in 1994 Moore and Tu 1996). Owing to the crisis in finding landfill space, New South Wales has recently prioritized minimizing waste production (NSWPMB 1998). Municipal household or domestic solid waste comprise most of the urban solid waste produced in Australia (42 per cent in 1994). The vast majority of domestic solid waste components, such as paper, organic compostable, plastic and glass, can all be re-used or effectively recycled (WMA 1990). Even smaller volume components such as household hazardous wastes, ferrous wastes and non-ferrous waste have ecologically sound alternatives or can be recycled very successfully, thus reducing...

Recycling and Reuse

Recycling techniques allow reuse of waste materials for beneficial purposes. A recycled material is used, reused, or reclaimed 40 CFR 261.1 (c)(7) . Recycling through use or reuse involves returning waste material to the original process as a substitute for an input material, or to another process as an input material. Recycling through reclamation involves processing a waste for recovery of a valuable material or for regeneration. Recycling can help eliminate waste disposal costs, reduce raw material costs, and provide income from saleable waste. Recycling is the second option in the pollution prevention hierarchy and should be considered only when all source reduction options have been investigated and implemented. Recycling options are listed in the following order It is important to note that recycling can increase a generator's risk or liability as a result of the associated material handling and management. Recycling effectiveness depends upon the ability to separate recoverable...

The Condition of the

For other materials, such as the possible human carcinogens, the furans and dioxins (PCDD and PCDF), there are no firm emission or air quality standards yet. These materials are the byproducts of paper bleaching, wood preservative and pesticide manufacturing, and the incineration of plastics. Because typical municipal solid waste (MSW) in the U.S. contains some 8 plastics, incineration is probably the prime source of dioxin emissions. Dioxins are formed on incinerator fly ash and end up either in landfills or are released into the atmosphere. Dioxin is suspected to be not only a carcinogen but also a cause of birth defects. It is concentrated through the food chain, is deposited in human fat tissues, and in some cases dioxin concentrations of 1.0 ppb have already been found in mother's milk.

Defining Industrial Ecology

Industrial ecology is ecological in at least two senses. As argued in the seminal publication by Frosch and Gallopoulos (1989) that did much to coalesce this field, industrial ecology looks to non-human 'natural' ecosystems as models for industrial activity.1 This is what some researchers have dubbed the 'biological analogy' (Wernick and Ausubel 1997 Allenby and Cooper 1994). Many biological ecosystems are especially effective at recycling resources and thus are held out as exemplars for efficient cycling of materials and energy in industry. The most conspicuous example of industrial re-use and recycling is an increasingly famous industrial district in Kalundborg, Denmark (Ehrenfeld and Gertler 1997 Chapter 27). The district contains a cluster of industrial facilities including an oil refinery, a power plant, a pharmaceutical fermentation plant and a wallboard factory. These facilities exchange by-products and what would otherwise be called wastes. The network of

Other Ecosystem Services

Since the agroecosystem is managed, and more or less sophisticated machinery and management skills are in place, it can easily be converted according to new demands from the society. If the quality requirements are met, agricultural fields can be used for recycling organic waste and ashes, and even for drawing nutrients out of sewage water. Conversion to energy crops is not too difficult (grasses, sugar beet, willow, sugarcane, etc.). Another demand from society, to sequester carbon in the soil to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere, has recently received much attention. Increasing soil carbon content usually has beneficial effects for soil structure, water-holding capacity and general fertility, and C sequestration, perhaps even with direct payments per ton C sequestered to the farmer, is a new potential service.

The Base of the Food

Estuaries are among the most productive of marine environments, although food abundance does fluctuate greatly over space and time. This extraordinary productivity is a product of the large amounts of nutrients that enter the estuary seasonally and their extensive recycling between the overlying water and the biologically active sediments. The Hudson has some interesting complications that create exceptions to these generalizations. Most importantly, the Hudson bears a large sediment load, coming from its drainage system and consisting of materials ranging from clays derived from erosionof glacially derived deposits to organic particles derived from substances such as leaflitter. The combination of materials reduces light penetration in the water column, which in turn reduces photosynthesis ofphytoplanktonandrestricts sub-aquatic attached vegetation to very shallow depths. The high particle concentration is complicated by strongvertical mixing, owing to tidal and wind mixing. Thus,...

Reducing Risk versus Optimizing Resource

Industrial ecology emphasizes the optimization of resource flows where other approaches to environmental science, management and policy sometimes stress the role of risk. For example, pollution prevention (P2) (also known as cleaner production or CP) emphasizes the reduction of risks, primarily, but not exclusively, from toxic substances at the facility or firm level (Allen 1996). Underlying this focus is an argument that only when the use of such substances is eliminated or dramatically reduced can the risks to humans and ecosystems be reliably reduced. In contrast, industrial ecology takes a systems view that typically draws the boundary for analysis more broadly - around groups of firms, regions, sectors and so on - and asks how resource use might be optimized, where resource use includes both materials and energy (as inputs) and ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles that provide crucial services to humanity (Ayres 1992a). In concrete terms, this means industrial ecology will...

Integrating Science and Society

Demand rears its head most vigorously in urban areas, especially in urban areas that are undergoing rapid development. New cities in China and India are obvious examples, but anticipated advances in wealth and urbanization throughout the developing world will mimic enhanced Chinese and Indian demand. It has been well established that urban residents use higher per-capita levels of many resources of all kinds than do rural dwellers (e.g., van Beers and Graedel 2007 Bloom et al. 2008). Urban people live in smaller dwellings and use energy more efficiently. The spatial compactness renders recycling more efficient and resource reuse more likely. However, cities are also point sources of pollution, which often overwhelm the assimilative capacities of adjacent ecosystems.

Heartbeats in the Muck

The benthos of the Hudsonis dominatedby species capable of living in soft bottoms. In freshwater areas the benthos consists mainly of diminutive animal species such as larvae of chironomid flies, oligochaete worms who depend upon organic detritus and sediment microbes for food (Chapter 19). Predatory fly larvae and amphipods are also common. In the saline reaches of the estuary, these species are supplanted by abundant polychaete annelids, amphipods, and patchy occurrences of mollusks such as clams. Again, a dependence on particulate organic matter and sediment microbes is widespread (Chapter 18). These animal species form rich populations that burrow in the sediment and accelerate the breakdown of organic matter and recycling of this material back to the water column. A few invertebrate species are specialized and are confined to the low salinity (oligohaline

The Necessity of Chemical Analysis

As we have already seen, this may either involve analysis of a compound not naturally found in the environment, or determination of the increase in concentration of a compound above the 'natural' level. The determination of 'natural' levels could itself involve a substantial monitoring exercise since these levels may vary greatly with location and season. Large quantities of waste materials have been produced for many centuries, and it may even be a difficult task to assess what an unpolluted environment is. For example, it has been discovered that the highly toxic and potentially carcinogenic compounds commonly referred to as 'dioxins', which were originally assumed to be completely anthropogenic (man-made), occur naturally at trace levels.

Regulations And Definitions

Pollution prevention, as defined under the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, means source reduction and other practices that reduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants through (1) increased efficiency in the use of raw materials, energy, water, or other resources or (2) protection of natural resources by conservation. Under the Pollution Prevention Act, recycling, energy recovery, treatment, and disposal are not included within the definition of pollution prevention. Practices commonly described as in-process recycling may qualify as pollution prevention. Recycling conducted in an environmentally sound manner shares many of the advantages of pollution prevention it can reduce the need for treatment or disposal and conserve energy and resources. Pollution prevention (or source reduction) is an agency's first priority in the environmental management hierarchy for reducing risks to human health and the environment from pollution. This hierarchy includes (1) prevention, (2) recycling,...

Table 311 Definitions Of Pollution Prevention Terms

In theory, waste applies to nonproduct output of processes and discarded products, irrespective of the environmental medium affected. In practice, since passage of the RCRA, most uses of waste refer exclusively to the hazardous and solid wastes regulated under RCRA and do not include air emissions or water discharges regulated by the Clean Air Act or the Clean Water Act. Pollution and pollutants refer to all nonproduct output, irrespective of any recycling or treatment that may prevent or mitigate releases to the environment (includes all media). Waste minimization initially included both treating waste to minimize its volume or toxicity and preventing the generation of waste at the source. The distinction between treatment and prevention became important because some advocates of decreased waste generation believed that an emphasis on waste minimization would deflect resources away from prevention towards treatment. In the current RCRA biennial report, waste minimization refers to...

Terrestrial Environments

Many invertebrates (e.g., mollusks, crustaceans) and amphibians are restricted to moist terrestrial habitats, at least when active, but many are more successful terrestrial animals because they have adaptations to minimize EWL. Arthropods have a chitinous exoskeleton, covered in a waxy cuticle that forms a barrier to evaporation. Birds, mammals, and especially reptiles have a cornified epithelium that increases resistance to EWL (Figure 5). Insulating fur (mammals) or feathers (birds) is a further barrier. Nasal counter-current exchange of heat and water in the respiratory passages of reptiles, birds, and mammals reduces respiratory EWL. Arthropods, birds, and reptiles typically produce insoluble uric acid as their nitrogenous waste material, and the mixing of urine and feces in their hindgut (where water is reabsorbed) minimizes excretory water loss. Many desert reptiles and mammals survive without drinking, maintaining water balance with preformed and metabolic water alone. Most...

Source Reduction versus Discharge Reduction

The EPA has taken a strong position on pollution prevention by regarding source reduction as the only true pollution prevention activity and treating recycling as an option. Industry's position prior to the act (and effectively unchanged since) was to reduce the discharge of pollutant waste into the environment in the most cost-effective manner. This objective is achieved in some cases by source reduction, in others by recycling, in others by treatment and disposal, and usually in a combination of these methods. For this reason, this handbook examines all options in the pollution prevention hierarchy. Traditionally, regulations change, with more stringent controls enacted over time. Therefore, source reduction and perhaps recycling and reuse (instead of treatment or disposal) may become more economically attractive in the future.

Chartering Activities

Selecting the waste streams for assessment is the first step in chartering a waste reduction program. This step is sometimes done at a high organizational level. Program planners should gather the minimum amount of data required to make their selections and use the fastest method possible to prioritize them. Methods such as weighted-sum ranking and weighting are not necessary for streams produced by a single area. Other tools for prioritizing a waste stream can be considered. For example, Pareto diagrams are a simple way to rank waste streams by volume. Smaller waste volumes can be given high priority if they are toxic or if regulatory imperatives are anticipated. A Pareto analysis of a typical Select Waste Streams

Pollution Prevention Techniques

In the current working definition used by the EPA, source reduction and recycling are considered the most viable pollution prevention techniques, preceding treatment and disposal. A detailed flow diagram, providing an in-depth approach to pollution prevention, is shown in Figure 3.3.1. Of the two approaches, source reduction is usually preferable to recycling from an environmental perspective. Source reduction and recycling are comprised of a number of practices and approaches which are shown in Figure 3.3.2.

Sources Dispersal Reconcentration and Degradation

Both water and the atmosphere are major routes for the dispersal of compounds. What comes as a surprise are the pathways by which some of the compounds disperse. It is very easy, for instance, for solid particulate material to be dispersed long distances via the atmosphere. There has been, for example, an approximately equal quantity of lead entering the North Sea off the coast of Britain from atmospheric particulates as from rivers or the dumping of solid waste. To illustrate this, a typical transport scheme for a metal (lead) is shown in Figure 2.1.

Table 331 Engineering Designbased Pollution Prevention Strategies

Install geodesic domes for external floating-roof tanks. Store VOCs in floating-roof tanks instead of fixed-roof tanks. Store VOCs in low-pressure vessels instead of atmospheric storage tanks. Use onsite boilers instead of wet scrubbers for air pollution control. Select vessels with smooth internals for batch tanks requiring frequent cleaning. Install curbs around tank truck unloading racks and other equipment located outdoors. Load VOC-containing vessels via dip pipes instead of splash loading. Install closed-loop vapor recycling systems for loading and unloading operations. Process Equipment Install inplant distillation stills for recycling and reusing solvent.

Table 335 Example Checklist Of Pollution Reduction Methods

Recycling, in-process or external Reuse or alternative use of the waste or chemical Change in sources from batch operations (for example, heel reuse, change in bottom design of vessel, vapor space controls, dead-space controls) Installation of isolation or containment systems Installation of rework systems for treating off-spec materials Change in practices for managing residuals (consolidation, Recovery or rework of waste streams generated by maintenance or inspection activities

Life Cycle Assessment

Inventory analysis, which is a technical, data-based process of quantifying energy and resource use, atmospheric emissions, waterborne emissions, and solid waste Impact analysis, which is a technical, quantitative, and qualitative process to characterize and assess the effects

Industrial Ecology Earlier Attempts

Another example Nelson Nemerow, who has been active in the industrial waste treatment field in the USA for more than 50 years, acknowledges in a his book a brain-storming session with Alex Anderson of UNIDO in Vienna during the early 1970s, at which time the idea of 'environmentally balanced industrial complexes' in the perspective of zero pollution was born (Nemerow 1995). Very similar ideas were discussed by Theodore Taylor, a nuclear physicist turned environmentalist, and Charles Humpstone, a lawyer, in a book published in New York at around the same time (Taylor and Humpstone 1972). In fact, in 1967 Taylor created the International Research and Technology Corporation (IR&T, based in Washington, DC), a company devoted to the development of these concepts, of which he was the president and Robert Ayres the vice-president. Clearly, ideas such as 'environmentally balanced industrial complexes' proposed in the

Interpret and Communicate the Results

The analyst should present the results of externally published studies comparing products, practices, or materials cautiously and consider the assumptions, boundaries, and data quality in drawing and presenting conclusions. Studies with different boundary conditions can have different results, yet both can be accurate. These limitations should be communicated to the reader along with all other results. Final conclusions about results from LCIs can involve value judgments about the relative importance of air and water quality, solid waste issues, resource depletion, and energy use. Based on the locale, background, and life style, different analysts make different value judgments.

Decreasing of P emissions

This includes measures such as treatment plants for municipal and industrial sewages plants, extensifying agricultural land use, and recycling P in industrial wastes. The nutrient reduction can be achieved by so called ring canalization that collects sewage and storm water for treatment in a central plant downstream of the protected lake. Land management procedures, generally known as 'best management practice', are the primary method for protecting surface waters from non point loading.

Reduced Material Intensiveness

For example, a fast-food franchise reduced material input and solid waste generation by decreasing the paper napkin weight by 21 . Two store tests revealed no change in the number of new napkins used compared to the old design. Attempts to reduce the gage of plastic straws, however, caused customer complaints. The redesigned straws were too flimsy and did not draw well with milkshakes

Community and Ecosystem Consequences

The evolutionary diversification and dominance of terrestrial ecosystems by flowering plants has been aided by several such associations. Insects and other animals pollinate flowers much more efficiently than does the wind, and the specificity of their behavior has fostered reproductive isolation and diversification of plant species. The roots of most terrestrial plants are intimately associated with mutualistic fungi (mycorrhizae) that enhance their uptake of nutrients from the soil. One of the most ecologically important mutualisms between plants and microbes involves the fixation of organic nitrogen by bacteria (rhi-zobia) in the roots of legumes. This association introduces new usable nitrogen into soils, is important in plant succession and community organization, and provides a source of limiting nitrogen to grazing livestock and other animals. Reef-building corals similarly thrive in extremely nutrient-poor ocean waters, and form the foundation of the most diverse marine...

Principles Of Cleaner Production

Finally, cleaner production attempts to formulate an integrated approach to environmental protection. Traditional end-of-pipe approaches have tended to concentrate on specific environmental media air, water or land. One of the failures of earlier management approaches was to reduce specific environmental emissions at the expense of emissions into different media. Cleaner production attempts to avoid this problem by concentrating on all material flows, rather than selected ones. Furthermore, as the definitions point out, cleaner production demands that attention be paid to emissions over the whole life cycle of the product or service from raw material extraction, through conversion and production, distribution, utilization or consumption, re-use or recycling, and to ultimate disposal.

Batch and Continuous Operations

Waste streams from batch processes are generally intermittent, whereas those from continuous processes are continuous. The composition and flow rates of waste streams leaving batch processes typically vary, whereas those of continuous processes are fairly constant. In practice, some of the other factors mentioned previously can dictate that a batch operation is preferred. Then, the chemical engineer should consider smoothing intermittent or variable flow streams (for example, by adding buffer storage capacity) to simplify processing and recovery of waste material.

Reducing Waste From Single Reactions

If separating and recycling unreacted feed material is difficult, a high conversion in the reactor is necessary. For an irreversible reaction, a low conversion can be forced to a higher conversion by a longer residence time in the reactor, a higher temperature, or higher pressure. A longer residence time is usually the most effective means.

Cleaner Production V Industrial Ecology Discussion And Conclusions

Much of the early emphasis of the UNEP cleaner production program was on process technology. Under this interpretation of the term, cleaner production owed much to the earlier concept of pollution prevention (USOTA 1987 Hirschhorn and Oldenburg 1991). There remains a tendency for the UNEP cleaner production program to focus its efforts on process technology improvements rather than the more intractable problems associated with consumption patterns, or even product take back and recycling. The UNEP program's network of national cleaner production centers focus mainly on providing information on the potential for pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities in small and medium-sized enterprises. Many of the articles published in the Journal of Cleaner Production cover the same sorts of topics. At the same time, as noted above, there is an agreement that these kinds of actions do not exhaust the remit of cleaner production, and far broader interpretations of the concept...

Impurities and Catalyst Loss

Using heterogeneous rather than homogeneous catalysts can also reduce waste from catalyst loss. Homogeneous catalysts can be difficult to separate and recycle, and this difficulty leads to waste. Heterogeneous catalysts are more common, but they degrade and need replacement. If contaminants in the feed material or recycling shortens the catalyst life, extra separation to remove those contaminants before they enter the reactor might be justified. If the catalyst is sensitive to extreme conditions such as high temperature, the following measures can help avoid local hot spots and extend the catalyst life Fluid-bed catalytic reactors tend to lose the catalyst through attrition of the solid particles generating fines which are then lost. More effective separation and recycling of fines reduce catalyst waste to a point. Improving the mechanical strength of the catalyst is probably the best solution in the long run.

Ecological Stoichiometry Another Currency

Ecological stoichiometry is well established in aquatic ecology but not yet in terrestrial ecology. Two recent papers on stoichiometry (Anderson et al., 2004, Moe et al., 2005) argue persuasively that ecologists interested in animal population response to resource availability need to consider the currency with which they examine plant-animal interactions. They argue that ecological stoichiome-try provides a multiple currency approach to understand the effects of resource quality. By multiple currency, they mean that rather than abstracting populations as aggregations of individuals or biomass, organisms are represented by carbon (C), phosphorous (P), and other trace elements that allow key feedbacks, such as consumer-driven nutrient recycling processes (Anderson et al., 2004 p. 884). The argument is that both food quantity and quality can be incorporated into a single framework. The concept of currency here has two related parts one meaning refers to the difference between the...

Background extinction See extinction

Bacteria are found over almost all the planet, from the interstices of rocks deep underground to icebergs, mountains, deserts, deep oceans, and the insides of other organisms. Most are single cells, ranging from rounded cocci to rods and spirochetes. A few, such as the cyanobac-terium Anabaena, form filaments of cells, clusters, or dense colonies (e.g. the cyanobacteria that form stromatolites). Bacteria play an important role in the recycling of nutrients in soil and water, in decomposition, and in nitrogen fixation (e.g. the symbiotic bacterium Rhizobium in the root nodules of legumes).

Practicing Green Gadget Living

Taking stock of how much energy you use Turning off gadgets to reduce their carbon footprints Giving your gadgets and gear another go-round Recycling your unwanted or useless gadgets Weighing whether to make new gadget purchases Relating ecofriendly electronics concepts to others

Food web manipulations

Food webs are either regulated by resources ('bottom up') or by predation ('top down'). A strong reduction of the biomass of zooplanktivorous fish such as roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) is often followed by an increase in the abundance and size of zooplankton (pre dominantly Daphnia species). This increases the grazing pressure on phytoplankton and potentially leads to the top down control of phytoplankton biomass, in which case the water becomes clear and extreme values of oxy gen and pH are avoided (Figure 9). A reduced biomass of planktivorous fish may also reduce nutrient recycling rates. The success of food web manipulation may there fore also be triggered by bottom up forces. Benthivorous fish such as bream (Abramis brama L.) or common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) exert bottom up effects on water quality as they increase sediment resuspension, water turbidity, and internal nutrient loading. The removal of benthivorous fish may therefore also strongly determine...

O Hoegh Guldberg S Dove

In this chapter, the various drivers of the energy flow through coral reefs are explored. After investigating which physical and chemical factors define corals and the reefs that they build, we describe some of the fundamental biological relationships that lead to the capture of energy and nutrients by coral reefs, and how these essential requirements of life flow through coral reef ecosystems. As we will see, while primary production is similar to that of other shallow marine ecosystems, coral reefs have a high proportion of pathways that involve the recycling of nutrients between closely associated primary producers and consumers. We will also see that the highly productive nature of coral reefs is deceptive in that it is accompanied by the rapid and efficient recycling of nutrients and energy such that overall rates of accumulation of organic carbon as reef growth are low. This theme lies at the heart of the puzzle of how highly productive and diverse coral reefs can exist in the...

Reconnecting To The Natural Systems

This represents a kind of miniature of today's industrial thinking. Society devours virgin materials, consumes them in the production process, often with a very low level of recycling, and leaves the waste to nature. The industrial culture of a throughput economy is the antithesis of nature's diligence based on restricted resources. Nature's method is that of integration and optimization for the natural environment as a whole. Efficiency is based on the greatest variety of species where each has its own special place. There is a continuous interplay between all the different species.

Industrial gases and the greenhouse effect

Figure 2.21 An example of long-distance environmental pollution. The distribution in Great Britain of fallout of radioactive caesium (Bq m-2) from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in the Soviet Union in 1986. The map shows the persistence of the pollutant on acid upland soils where it is recycled through soils, plants and animals. Sheep in the upland areas contained more caesium-137 (137Cs) in 1987 and 1988 (after recycling) than in 1986. 137Cs has a half-life of 30 years On typical lowland soils it is more quickly immobilized and does not persist in the food chains. (After NERC, 1990.)

Binomial distribution See distribution

Bioaugmentation The reinforcing of natural biological processes using addition organisms. For example, decomposition of organic material such as sewage is augmented by the addition of various species of bacteria. It is essentially the concentration of organisms that grow naturally in the environment, not the addition of genetically modified organisms. Bioaugmentation is important in converting human or industrial waste to nonpolluting products.

EPA Pollution Prevention Strategy

Created a Waste Minimization Branch in the Office of Solid Waste to coordinate waste minimization and pollution prevention under the RCRA Charged the EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory with conducting research on industrial pollution prevention and waste minimization technologies Developed a Pollution Prevention Advisory Committee to ensure that pollution prevention is incorporated throughout the EPA's programs

The Hidden Message Of Metaphors In Environmental Science

Industrial metabolism traces material and energy flows from initial extraction of resources through industrial and consumer systems to the final disposal of wastes. It makes explicit use of the mass balance principle. First developed by Ayres and collaborators in a series of papers and books (Ayres et al. 1989 Ayres 1989a, 1989b, 1993b, 1994b Ayres and Simonis 1994) industrial metabolism has become an important foundation of industrial ecology. Industrial metabolism can usefully be applied at many different levels globally, nationally, regionally, by industry, by company and by site. By invoking the parallel to biological metabolism, industrial metabolism analysis highlights the dramatic difference between natural and industrial metabolic processes, in particular the large difference in energy and material densities and fluxes and the lack of a primary producer (analogous to photosynthetic organisms) in the industrial world. Also, in natural systems, some nutrients flow in closed...

Stefan Bringezu and Yuichi Moriguchi

Understanding the structure and functioning of the industrial or societal metabolism is at the core of industrial ecology (Ayres 1989a see also Chapters 1, 2 and 3). Material flow analysis (MFA) refers to the analysis of the throughput of process chains comprising extraction or harvest, chemical transformation, manufacturing, consumption, recycling and disposal of materials. It is based on accounts in physical units (usually in terms of tons) quantifying the inputs and outputs of those processes. The subjects of the accounting are chemically defined substances (for example, carbon or carbon dioxide) on the one hand and natural or technical compounds or 'bulk' materials (for example, coal, wood) on the other hand. MFA has often been used as a synonym for material flow accounting in a strict sense the accounting represents only one of several steps of the analysis, and has a clear linkage to economic accounting.

The Importance of Plants in the Aquarium

The secret of the remarkable production by plants of both oxygen and organic food substances is of course photosynthesis. During the day the plant consumes nutrients (mineral substances) and obtains carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the water, where it has been released as a by-product of animal respiration. In the presence of sunlight and the complex compound chlorophyll, starches and sugars are produced and oxygen eliminated as a waste material. At night the plants reverse their role, breathing in oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide, but during this time most fish are inactive and their need for oxygen is minimal.

How Is an Ecosystem Structured and Sustained

Figure 3.1 Depiction of materials flow through consumption-production systems. Straight arrows indicate flow from producer to consumer dashed arrows indicate loss due to metabolic processes and leaching curved arrows indicate self-regulating negative feedback. (a) An open system in which materials flow up the trophic chain and dissipate out of the system. (b) A closed system due to materials recycling via decomposition and due to self-regulating negative feedback. Figure 3.1 Depiction of materials flow through consumption-production systems. Straight arrows indicate flow from producer to consumer dashed arrows indicate loss due to metabolic processes and leaching curved arrows indicate self-regulating negative feedback. (a) An open system in which materials flow up the trophic chain and dissipate out of the system. (b) A closed system due to materials recycling via decomposition and due to self-regulating negative feedback. First, all spent and unused materials that are in limited...

Major Living Organisms of Ecosystems

The survival of any individual organism depends on the flow ofmatter and energy through its body. However, organisms in an ecosystem survive primarily through a combination of matter recycling and one-way energy flow. Decomposers complete the cycle of matter by breaking down detritus into inorganic nutrients that are usable by producers. Each type oforganism in an ecosystem uniquely plays a role in this flow ofenergy and in the flow and eventual recycling of matter.

Ecological Services Biodiversity and Restoration of Mine Areas

The term 'ecological services' refers to ecosystem pro cesses that are beneficial to human society. The older term 'ecosystem functions' refers to the same processes, but does not emphasize their benefits to humans. These benefits can be direct, for example, food production or water quality improvement by wetlands, or they can be indirect, such as degradation of leaf litter and subsequent mineralization and recycling of plant nutrients for continued growth of vegetation. The advantage of refer ring to such processes as ecological services is that a monetary value can be determined and compared with human made technologies that are supposed to do the same. This puts the benefits of intact ecosystems into a perspective that can be quantified, and easily understood by the general public. For example, what would it cost to turn solar energy into food through human made tech nologies rather than the natural process of growing crops

Sources of Air Pollution

Source categorization according to number and spatial distribution includes single or point sources (stationary), area or multiple sources (stationary or mobile), and line sources. Point sources characterize pollutant emissions from industrial process stacks and fuel combustion facility stacks. Area sources include vehicular traffic in a geographical area as well as fugitive dust emissions from open-air stock piles of resource materials at industrial plants. Figure 5.1.1 shows point and area sources of air pollution. Included in these categories are transportation sources, fuel combustion in stationary sources, industrial process losses, solid waste disposal, and miscellaneous items. This organization of source categories is basic to the development of emission inventories. Line sources include heavily travelled highway facilities and the leading edges of uncontrolled forest fires.

Metals In Building 621 Iron and steel

The extraction of iron ore usually takes place in open quarries and extends over large areas, which means that the groundwater situation can change and local ecosystems can be damaged. One ton of iron ore usually produces 5 to 6 tons of waste materials. Extraction of coal in open quarries or deep mines causes similar environmental damage. include waste materials from surface treatments, paint or fire protection coatings. Recycled aluminium can be used a great deal in cast products. Aluminium waste is recycled by smelting in a chloride salt bath at 650 C, which at best only requires 7 of the energy needed for the production from ore. The waste aluminium has to be pure this is often complicated by residue from coatings such as powdering -and by ongoing efforts to increase the material quality by developing new aluminium alloys (Azar et al., 2002). Recycling of aluminium requires a great deal of transport however because of centralized production.

The technological model or bringing the incinerator back in

This is most clearly expressed in the area of waste. While the City introduced so-called Green Bins citywide in order to capture the socalled wet waste of households, it is struggling to find solutions to the continuingly growing mountain of common household waste, which escapes recycling and is being shipped by caravans of trucks along a more than 400 km long road to Michigan. As ecological modernization has gripped the material streams and waste habits of all Torontonians, it remains unclear whether the spirit of reduction can outlast the nagging aggressiveness of the proponents of more conventional methods of waste management and of technologically advanced forms of incineration.2 Waste streams have reached an impasse as old dumps are closing, new ones are not available, shipment of waste runs into public opposition along the trucks' route and in the recipient location on one hand, this has led to sophisticated new waste diversion strategies, which also rely on compliance...

Ecosystem Roles Of Native Pathogens And Insects

Haack and Byler (1993) have summarized the roles of native pathogens and insects in forest ecosystems. One role is a part of basic ecosystem process, that is, recycling carbon and other nutrients through decay. Others involve beneficial relationships with plants through mycorrhyzal symbiosis and pollination. Still others involve more complex interactions with wildlife and habitat. Pathogens and insects can serve as food sources for vertebrates, invertebrates, and microorganisms and create specific habitat components, such as dead standing and down trees, that provide decayed wood for nesting cavities or forage. They also regulate populations of woody and herbaceous vegetation directly or indirectly through forest succession.

Rechargeable batteries

Disposing of rechargeable batteries is a heck of a lot easier than disposing of single-use batteries, thank goodness Finding a location that collects dead rechargeable batteries to see that they're properly recycled can take less than a minute of your time, thanks to the nonprofit organization Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC). To find a rechargeable-battery recycling drop-off location near you, follow these steps To find out more about recycling other hopelessly useless electronics and electronic waste, check out Chapter 16.

Example A Piot For Germany 1990 A Functional Sixsector Version

C production of consumer goods for manufacturing and private households H household consumption activities, transformation of consumer goods P environmental protection services, collection and recycling of residuals in the same establishment and further treatment in external protection facilities or storage in controlled landfills.

What should be done to make household consumption sustainable

Environmental economists (Van den Bergh and Ferrer-i-Carbonell, 2000) argue that in studying consumer behaviour and seeking a comprehensive perspective on the limits and opportunities of sustainable consumption, at least five levels of 'consumer behaviour' need to be considered preferences, motivations, constraints, decisions based on given preferences, goals and constraints (e.g. environmental tax policies change not only prices but also incomes which will subsequently affect behaviour this aspect is often referred to as 'rebound', the unwanted change in behaviour which offsets technological efficiency improvements) and types of decisions relevant to environmental impact assessments (e.g. buying, use, reuse, recycling, repair, illegal dumping and waste treatment).

Future Directions For Research On Roots And Mycorrhizal Function And Biodiversity

Several recent studies of mycorrhizal function have noted the ways in which mycorrhiza facilitate nutrient uptake from a wide range of sources. For example, Perez-Moreno and Read (2001) measured an enhanced recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus from the necromass of nematodes in cultures with Betula pendula. In nonmycorrhizal treatments, the uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus was slightly greater, but

Urmila Diwekar and Mitchell J Small

Figure 11.1 presents a conceptual framework for industrial ecology applied at different scales of spatial and economic organization, evaluating alternative management options using different types of information, tools for analysis and criteria for performance evaluation. As one moves from the small scale of a single unit operation or industrial production plant to the larger scales of an integrated industrial park, community, firm or sector, the available management options expand from simple changes in process operation and inputs to more complex resource management strategies, including integrated waste recycling and re-use options. Special focus has been placed on implementing the latter via industrial symbiosis, for example, through the pioneering work of integrating several industrial and municipal facilities in Kalundborg, Denmark (Ehrenfeld and Gertler 1997). At higher levels of spatial and economic organization, for example, at national and, in recent years, global scales of...

The importance of waste

Fig. 3.1 This beach on the Spanish island of Mallorca shows what happens when a substance which is hard for organisms to break down (plastic) is added to a system over time. Plastic waste can now be found in quantity even on very remote beaches around the world (Barnes, 2002), as it is constantly being added to the marine system but only slowly broken down. Fig. 3.1 This beach on the Spanish island of Mallorca shows what happens when a substance which is hard for organisms to break down (plastic) is added to a system over time. Plastic waste can now be found in quantity even on very remote beaches around the world (Barnes, 2002), as it is constantly being added to the marine system but only slowly broken down. the time (e.g. Club Mosses and Ferns) used more lignin in their structure than later woody plants (Robinson, 1990). The key members of the modern lignin degrading guild are fungi, particularly Basidiomyetes, many of which produce the familiar 'mushroom' fruiting bodies. These...

Agencies Imparting Directionality

One sees in Polya's Urn how direction can evolve out of a stochastic background. The key within the process is the feedback that is occurring between the history of draws and the current one. Hence, in looking for the origins of directionality in real systems, we turn to consider feedback within living systems. Feedback, after all, has played a central role in much of what is known as the theory of self-organization (e.g. Eigen, 1971 Maturana and Varela, 1980 DeAngelis et al., 1986 Haken, 1988 Kauffman, 1995). Central to control and directionality in cybernetic systems is the concept of the causal loop. A causal loop, or circuit is any concatenation of causal connections whereby the last member of the pathway is a partial cause of the first. Primarily because of the ubiquity of material recycling in ecosystems, causal loops have long been recognized by ecologists (Hutchinson, 1948).

Parallel Evolution Of Decay Equations

In hazardous, municipal, or industrial waste treatment, bioreactors are used primarily to reduce the concentration of contaminants in incoming wastewaters to acceptably low levels (Armenante, 1993). Equations have been developed which describe the process of reduction of contaminants in bioreactors (see Figure 2.16) and design is based on these equations. This approach has evolved over time and can be traced by examining various editions of textbooks on sanitary engineering. For example, Leonard Metcalf and Harrison Eddy produced a standard text that has spanned the design evolution of wastewater treatment. Early versions of their text contained essentially no equations, and design was based on practical experience with the available systems, such as trickling filters or activated sludge units (Metcalf and Eddy, 1916, 1930). This text evolved with the field with revisions by George Tchobanoglous and, by the 1970s, it was filled with equations (Metcalf and Eddy, 1979). These equations...

Comparing Different Types Of Impacts And Evaluation Of Total Impact

A cautious attitude is easy to understand if weighting results are seen as a 'verdicts' and if companies and responsible persons have limited ability to adapt to the 'law'. Representatives of the third world often mentioned LCIA and weighting in particular as a potential trade barrier. The industrial world might conceivably impose new requirements on the third world industry that it could not fulfill. However, if weighting is seen as comparing the overall outcome with different general environmental goals and public preferences, it may be less controversial (Bengtsson and Steen 2000). Those in favor of weighting claim that no choice between technical concepts can be made openly and transparently without weighting. If a formal weighting procedure is used the result is open for discussion and criticism. This is particularly valuable for a democratic process, as when the government develops guidelines for recycling or for use of some materials.

Thermodynamics and Conservation of Mass and Energy

Electrical engineering principles are constrained by these laws. Ecosystems are open systems that require a continual input of energy to maintain their structure and function. Two of the most inviolable principles of ecological science can be described as energy flow and material recycling. Material recycling nutrients among themselves and the storage compartments. Many traditional human engineering designs lead to the accumulation of waste materials that cannot be reused by the original process and can contaminate other processes. Ecological engineering designs seek to minimize waste production and to utilize wastes (material not related to the primary function of the design) as inputs for other processes. One example of this is using ecological processes to clean up waste products such as using wetlands to treat wastewater or phytoremediation to clean up soil contamination.

Natural conditions for life

The molecular level can be utilised on the next level, the cell level, and so on throughout the entire hierarchy molecules cells organs organisms populations ecosystems. The maintenance of each level is dependent on its openness to exchange energy and matter. The rates in the higher levels are dependent on the sum of many processes on the molecular level. They are furthermore dependent on the slowest processes in the chain supply of energy and matter to the unit the metabolic processes excretion of waste heat and waste material. The first and last of these three steps limit the rates and are determined by the extent of openness, measured by the area available for exchange between the unit and its environment relative to the volume. These considerations are based on allometric principles (Section 3.6 Peters, 1983 Straskraba et al., 1997).

Landfill Gas Emissions

The major component of landfill gas is methane less than 1 (by volume) consists of nonmethane organic compounds. Air toxics detected in landfills include such compounds as benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroform, TSRs, tetrachloroethylene and toluene, and xylenes (Air and Waste Management Association 1992). Landfill gas is generated by chemical and biological processes on municipal solid waste (MSW). The gas generation rate is affected by parameters such as the type and composition of the waste, the fraction of biodegradable materials, the age of the waste, the moisture content and pH, and the temperature. Anaerobic decomposition can produce internal temperatures to 37 C (98.6 F) gas production rates are highest for moisture contents of 60-78 .

Stressor Dose Response

For example, cultural eutrophication is a major problem associated with most coastal zones due to disposal of household waste into these zones. The stressor in this situation is increase in nutrients from human wastes living in the area. The response from such activity will be oxygen depletion resulting in fish kill. Fish kill has negative impact on fish populations but this same stressor could produce a different response on other organisms such as phytoplankton bloom in this coastal zone where eutrophication is taking place. For example, opportunistic plant species dwelling in such eutrophic waters will respond positively to this stressor by blooming. Central to defining levels of exposure deemed safe or unsafe for environmental stressors is studying exposure-response and developing exposure-response models needed for ecological risk assessment for public policymakers.

In Existing Burrows and Nests

Cockroaches living in the nests of social insects profit from protective services, a favorable microclimate, and a stable food supply in the form of host-stored reserves and waste material. The only benefit to the hosts suggested in the literature is the opportunity to scavenge the corpses of their guests. Ants generally ignore live Attaphila in the nest (Wheeler, 1900), but the mechanism by which the cockroaches are integrated into colony life has not been studied. Like other inquilines, however, the cuticular hydrocarbons of these cockroaches may mimic those of their hosts. Gas chromatography indicates that the surface wax of Ps. yumotoi is similar to that of their ant hosts (T. Yumoto, pers. comm. to LMR), but it is yet to be determined whether these are acquired from the ants by contact or ingestion, or if they are synthesized de novo. Cuticular hydrocarbons are easily transferred by contact between two different species of cockroaches. After 14 days in the same container N....

Efficiency Gains in Production

Considerable potentials for energy recovery from municipal organic waste and residues in agriculture and forestry exist. For example, the energetic use of wastes can provide the double benefit of waste management and energy provision. Residues from agriculture, forestry, and biomass-processing industries have great potential as feedstocks for stationary energy provision. To a more limited extent, second generation technologies for transport biofuels, when these become available, could also make use of residues. Energy recovery from waste and residues can save significant greenhouse gas emissions without requiring additional land. However, research is required with regard to the proper balance of residues remaining on the field for soil fertility and removal for energy, as well as with regard to nutrient recycling after energy recovery.

The Dematerialization Concept

This was confirmed in works of Larson, Ross and Williams (1986) who provided evidence of some earlier or pre-World War II downturns in materials IOU and of Clark and Flemings (1986) who demonstrated that technological processes cause fluctuations in the way in which materials are used. The implications of these insights are that levels of IOU change regularly for different materials and that cyclical swings in this index might be a better indicator of mineral industry adjustments than that of a declining trend. This view was also supported by Sterman (1985) who concluded from his systems dynamics research and analyses of IOU patterns that structural changes in the economy can be better described as following a cyclical rather than a declining trend pattern. Finally, Ayres and Ayres (1996) show how dematerialization can be better explained in terms of materials substitution and recycling strategies.

Steady State Analysis Energy and Nutrient Intensities

This is complex enough to allow feedback (recycling), yet simple enough to allow using standard algebra. All that is done here can be couched in matrix notation, and shorthand is useful for systems with many compartments, but algebra is more transparent.

Increase of Mining Waste Caused by Deteriorating Ore Grade

Metal ores typically exist as oxides and sulfides bound together with waste rock. Mined crude ore is beneficiated to separate ore minerals from waste rock. At this stage, signifi cant amounts of solid waste (tailings) are inevitably generated the amount of valuable elements is relatively small compared to the total volume or mass of ores actually mined. Over time, as ore grade has decreased in most metals, the waste volume has tended to increase. For example, copper ore mined in the beginning of twentieth century contained about 3 copper (Graedel et al. 2002), but the current typical copper ore grade is now only about 0.3 . Thus, 1000 kg of copper is currently accompanied by more than 300,000 kg of waste. In the case of gold, the typical ore grade in Australian mines at the end of the nineteenth century was around 20 grams per 1000 kg, but current grade is ten times smaller. Thus, the amount of ore milled and wasted is about one-half to one million times the net gold content. In...

Nutrient Cycling Flux and Dynamics

Figure 3 The ratio of nutrient elements recycling by a feeding homeostatic consumer as a function of the ratios of elements in its food. At low N P in the food, the homeostatic consumer retains N with high efficiency, recycling excess P, and hence the N P recycled is very low. In contrast, at high N P in the food, the homeostatic consumer retains P with high efficiency, releases relatively more N, and thus the N P recycled is very high. Homeostasis in the consumer causes this relationship to curve and the greater the ability of the consumer to retain the element limiting its own growth, the tighter the bend in the function. Figure 3 The ratio of nutrient elements recycling by a feeding homeostatic consumer as a function of the ratios of elements in its food. At low N P in the food, the homeostatic consumer retains N with high efficiency, recycling excess P, and hence the N P recycled is very low. In contrast, at high N P in the food, the homeostatic consumer retains P with high...

Environmental Pollution and Degradation Caused by Mining and Beneficiation Process

The tonnage of material handled and processed by mining and beneficiation is directly linked to the amount of solid waste left at the mining site, and this amount correlates with requirements for energy resources, water resources, and land resources (Norgate, this volume). Mining and processing activities are related to a variety of environmental concerns

Increased Primary Production Can Reduce Food Chain Production

Study also involving Daphnia and a green alga (Figure 9), increased light intensity was shown to inhibit Daphnia population growth and trophic efficiency but eventually nutrient recycling by the Daphnia was able to increase algal nutrient content so that high grazer densities eventually were achieved. In a result that supports the idea that increased light intensity can result in grazer extinction, in this study one replicate vessel received especially high light intensity, which resulted in unusually high algal C P ratio and a Daphnia population that was never able to increase in abundance and was undergoing significant decline at the end of the experimental period.

Applied Systems Thinking

In this regard, the news is guardedly optimistic. The art and science of high-performance building is growing. The result is a new generation of buildings that require a fraction of the energy of conventional buildings, use materials screened for environmental effects, minimize water consumption, and are landscaped to promote biological diversity, moderate microclimates, and grow foods. The best of these are highly efficient, powered substantially by sunlight and feature daylight, water recycling, and interior green spaces. They are a finer calibration between our five senses and the built environment and tend to promote higher user satisfaction and productivity. The costs of building green, as it turns out, are not necessarily higher than conventional buildings while having lower operating costs. The goal is to design buildings as whole systems, not as disjointed components. The green building movement is now a worldwide movement and is transforming the practice of architecture,...

Environmental Impacts Caused by Metallurgical Processes

The iron and steel sector is one of the major industrial emitters of CO2, and carbon accounting in coke ovens and blast furnaces is important in greenhouse gas emission inventories. The recovery of by-products in steelmaking, such as blast furnace slag, minimizes solid waste generation efficiently slag can then be used in cement production.

Timber From The Tropics

Seen from the point of view of resources, substitution with natural fibres is a positive step. The production energy will be considerably lower, and can be halved for some sheet products (Patel, 2002). Generally, composites are not very desirable since they involve irreversible mixing of materials, making material recycling practically impossible. In the case of bioplastics, this picture provides openings for improvement. In some cases the products may even be entirely compostable.

Environmental behaviour explained by motivations

Authors such as Thorgersen and Moisander have underlined the role of personal factors like perceptions, attitudes and emotions in motivations to adopt a behaviour that contributes to a better quality environment. They considered, for instance, the perception of a moral responsibility towards the protection of the environment, the perceived normative pressure, the perception of the identity of a responsible consumer with regard to the protection of the environment and perceived behavioural control. Among these motivations, Moisander (1999) distinguishes primary motivations (that engage in a general behavioural class such as 'to adopt ecological behaviour') and selective motivations (that generate a particular behaviour e.g. recycling, energy saving). She observes that the moral responsibility that people feel with regard to the protection of the environment and the perception of their identity as an ecological consumer are more powerful motivations than the others for adopting an...

Analytical Methodologies Life Cycle Inventory Analysis and Impact Assessment for Metals

Which evaluations of four problem-oriented impact categories were presented per kilogram of metal produced. The categories were gross energy requirement, global warming potential, acidifi cation potential, and solid waste burden. Though other environmental impact categories (e.g., ecological and human toxicity) are also important, they were not included in this study because of limited data. Data for mobility (leaching behavior) of toxic substances in the solid waste from mining and metallurgical process should be included to cover broader environmental impact categories. At present, there is no widely accepted single index that captures all major environmental impacts associated with life cycle of metals.

Resource Depletion as an Impact Category

Resource depletion is one the central issues in the sustainability of mineral resources. Depletion is often included as an impact category of life cycle assessment, whereas resource use is sometimes classified merely as an item in the economic axis in a set of sustainability indicators (e.g., UNDPCSD 1996). There are different views on the availability of nonrenewable resources in Earth's crust. A recent exchange of views on copper availability (Gordon et al. 2006 Tilton and Lagos 2007 Gordon et al. 2007) clarified that there are additional factors involved besides physical abundance (a) potential constraints on traditional mining as a consequence of energy and water availability, (b) potential constraints on international trade, (c) substitution for virgin ore extraction by enhanced recycling and reuse, (d) growth in demand, and (e) technology change.

Challenges To Theory And Application Of Optimal Resource Extraction Models

The choice of discount rate reflects time preference and changes in an economy's productivity that result from converting biophysical resources into reproducible, humanmade capital. Not all of the energy and material resources, however, are used to provide goods and services for consumers or to produce new capital equipment. Some resources are used to produce and store the information that describes production processes. One may put a value on such accumulated knowledge in analyzing the economics of materials recycling and energy resource depletion, focusing on ways to preserve economic efficiency while addressing the issue of intergenerational equity (Page 1977 Ruth and Bullard 1993). Page proposed a 'conservation criterion' to ensure an intertemporally egalitarian distribution of exhaustible resources. This conservation criterion states that each generation that irreversibly depletes energy resources or highly concentrated ores has an ethical obligation to leave the next generation...

CH5 network internal amplification

It is sometimes observed in the environ mathematics of particular networks that substance introduced into one compartment at the boundary will appear more than once at another compartment, despite boundary dissipation in the interim. This is due to recycling, and it is easily seen how progressively diminishing fractions of a unit of introduced substance can cumulatively produce a sum over time in a limit process that exceeds the original amount. The second law cannot be defeated by this means, but energy cycling (Patten, 1985) following from open boundaries can compensate it and make it appear at least challenged in network organization. This is but one of numerous unexpected properties of networks contributed by cyclic interconnection and system openness.

Impacts Of Protozoa On Ecosystem Function

Loop, defined by Pomeroy (1974) as the rapid recycling of nutrients by protozoan grazers, is a powerful conceptual tool. In a fashion similar to that occurring in aquatic systems, rapidly feeding protozoa may consume one or more standing crops of bacteria in soil every year (Clarholm, 1985 Coleman, 1994). This tendency is particularly marked in the rhizosphere, which provides a ready food source for microbial prey.

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