Part I

The Production of Resin by Plants 21

Chapter 1 What Plant Resins Are and Are Not 23 Definitions of Resin 23 Terpenoid Resins 26

Terpenoid Synthesis 26 Terpenoid Loss 33 Characteristic Components 34 Phenolic Resins 40

Synthesis and Characteristic Components 41 Substances Confused or Intermixed with Resin 45 Gums 45 Mucilages 47 Oils and Fats 48 Waxes 49

Resin Compounds in Latex 49 Miscellaneous Intermixed Compounds 50

Chapter 2 Resin-Producing Plants 51 Resin-Producing Conifers 52 Classification 52 Pinaceae 54 Araucariaceae 59 Podocarpaceae 62 Cupressaceae 63

Resin-Producing Angiosperms 67 Classification 67 Basal Group 69 Monocots 70 Eudicots 73 Evolutionary Trends in Resin-Producing Plants 98 Taxonomic Distribution of Resin Producers 98 Convergence in Aspects of Resin Production 101 Status of Evolutionary Interpretation 103

Chapter 3 How Plants Secrete and Store Resin 106

Ultrastructural Features of Resin Secretory Structures 107 Sites of Synthesis 107 Export of Resin Components 110 Internal Resin Secretory Structures 112 Canals Versus Pockets or Cysts 112 Conifers 114 Angiosperms 122 Resin in Laticifers 127 Evolution of Internal Secretory Structures 128 External Resin Secretory Structures 130 Glandular Trichomes 130 Epidermal Cells and Bud Trichomes 135

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