Part Ii

The Geologic History and Ecology of Resins 141

Chapter 4 Amber: Resins Through Geologic Time 143 How Is Resin Fossilized and When Is It Amber? 144 Distribution of Amber Deposits 147 Sources of Amber 150 Botanical Evidence 150 Chemical Evidence 153 Geologic History of Amber-Producing Plants 156 Amber from Conifers 157 Amber from Angiosperms 172 Amber of Unknown Botanical Source 187

The Floras of Amber Forests 189 Baltic Amber Forests 189 Dominican and Mexican Amber Forests 192 Renewed Interest in Amber Research 194

Chapter 5 Ecological Roles of Resins 196

Ecologically Important Properties of Resin 196 Variation in Resin Composition 199 Variation in Resin Quantity 202 Resin Defense of Conifers 203

Ponderosa Pine as a Model System 204 Other Conifer Resin Interactions 210 Ecological Roles in Tropical Angiosperms 219

Copious Resin Production in Tropical Trees 219 Hymenaea and Copaifera as Model Systems 220 Other Angiosperm Resin Interactions 229 Roles of Surface-Coating Resins 237

Shrubs and Herbs in Xeric Communities 237 Subarctic and Boreal Trees 244 Ecosystem Interactions of Resins 247

Resin Use by Bees in the Temperate Zones 248 Pharmaceutical Use of Resin by Coatis 249 Resins as Beetle Pheromones 250 Role of Resin in Ecosystem Nutrient Cycling 251 Herbivore-Induced Terpene Emissions and Tropospheric Chemistry 252 Future Ecological Research on Resins 253

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