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Ted McGrath is the author of Teds Woodworking, and is a famous woodworking artist. He has wonseveral awards in the field and has now become a professional woodworker possessing almost all of the woodworking skills. He has also written several other best-selling books related to woodworking which helped him earn a lot of fame and success in the area. This book is here to guide you in every possible way so that so successfully shift from an amateur to a successful professional soon. The book also contains pictorial diagrams for you to highlight the length and width of several woodworking plans so that you have a clear idea of making the product. In case you are planning to run your own woodworking business by selling various unique wood crafts, this book is ideal for you. This is because this book will guide you through the process of making your business successful, helping you earn lots of money through it. Read more...

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Preharvest Burning in Mixed Hardwood Stands

More than 70 years of fire exclusion have altered stand structure and composition of eastern hardwood stands. These changes are manifested in increased stand density, greater canopy stratification, and a higher proportion of shade-tolerant and fire-intolerant species, especially in the understory. Although one understory burn is unlikely to markedly modify these conditions, repeated understory burning over long periods of time creates a stand structure on drier sites that favors oaks (Thor and Nichols 1974). Van Lear and Watt (1993) developed a theoretical prescription to encourage oak regeneration by burning the understory of mature mixed hardwood stands near the end of the rotation. They hypothesized that fire would reduce understory and midstory competition and enhance the relative position of the more fire-resistant oaks in the advance regeneration pool. Barnes and Van Lear (1998) tested this hypothesis in the Piedmont of South Carolina and found that one spring fire, that is, one...

The Bottomland Hardwoods

Flood plains of major rivers, swamps, and creek bottoms interspersed among upland sites produce much of the commercially valuable hardwood timber of the southern United States. Even in these moist sites, fire periodically alters the stands of broadleaf trees setting them back in ecological succession, changing species composition, or simply causing the replacement of an old stand to a young one of the same species through coppice regeneration. Severe fire often prevents restocking of commercially valuable stems by destroying the humus layer soils become puddled and then dry to rock-like hardness.

Oaks and Acorns as a Foundation for Ecosystem Management

The Appalachians to the open savannas of California. North American oaks occupy temperate climes, where moisture is slightly xeric and fires are common but not necessarily annual. Although the seedlings are usually shade-intolerant, oaks can form old-growth stands because of their longevity, resistance to fire, and their ability to recolonize following disturbance. Among the hardwood species, oaks are at present the most economically important group within North America. There is concern for their health and continued productivity (Healy et al. 1997) because of the stresses caused by the introduction of insect pests (Houston 1981, Gottschalk 1989), recent increases in deer populations (Healy 1997a), suppression of fire (Abrams et al. 1995), and widespread oak decline (Oak et al. 1988). Conservationists are concerned with the loss of forest to agricultural and suburban development (Robinson et al. 1995) and the industrial conversion of deciduous forest stands into pine plantations...

Tree biology and how it influences woodland ecology

The genus Eucalyptus, which consists of around 500 species of trees and shrubs, has a native distribution largely confined to Australia, but extending into New Guinea, eastern Indonesia and Mindanao (Hora, 1981). Eucalypts show a most remarkable range of size and habitat and various species of this vigorous and adaptable tree, which evolved in isolation even from New Zealand, are now widely planted in many parts of the world, especially California which has the largest range of eucalypt species in the USA. The smallest is less than a metre in height, whereas mountain ash E. regnans can live for 300 years and is the tallest hardwood tree in the world, growing to more than 100 m on deeper well-watered soils in the foothills of Victoria, South Australia. The river red gum E. camaldulensis, a robust tree up to 35 m high, is found in most of Australia and can live for 500 years older trees shelter parrots in their cavities. Tasmanian blue gum E. globulus, which reaches 35-45 m in height,...

Inland Forested Wetlands

With an emphasis on North America, we discuss three major riverine forested wetland types here bottomland hardwoods of the southern U.S., northeastern floodplains, and western riparian zones. Cypress wetlands occur in both riverine and basin habitats, and both are described below. Some inland basin forested wetlands are peatlands, which are discussed in the following section. a. Southern Bottomland Hardwood Southern bottomland hardwood forests are found in both major and minor watersheds from the Atlantic coast to eastern Texas and Oklahoma and as far north as the Ohio and Wabash Rivers. Some of the largest floodplains in which bottomland forests grow are along the lower Mississippi and its tributaries, the Arkansas, Red, Ouachita, Yazoo, and St. Francis Rivers. Other rivers that flow toward the Gulf of Mexico as well as those that drain the southern and middle Atlantic coast also support bottomland hardwood forested wetlands (Brinson 1990). The structure of bottomland forest...

Oak Distribution During The Euro American Settlement Period

Table 3.1 summarizes examples of the published witness tree accounts throughout the eastern forest biome in which oak was an important component. Oak was widely distributed in the presettlement forest, although its degree of dominance varied. The major oak regions were southern New England, the mid-Atlantic region, the Southern Appalachians, southeastern parts of the Coastal Plain, and the Midwest and southern Lake States. Oak occurred in northern hardwood-conifer forests of New England and the Lake States, but it was a minor component compared to beech, sugar maple, birch, hemlock, and white pine. However, Native American land clearing and use of fire were apparently responsible for increasing the local distribution of oak within the northern hardwood-conifer forest, including the formation of oak savanna in northeastern Wisconsin (Dorney and Dorney 1989, Fuller et al. 1998). Temporal and spatial increases in oak abundance in New England are also related to warmer and drier climate...

Geography of the Forest An Overview

Those born beyond the forests of the tall pines and broad-beamed hardwoods of the South must acquire a taste for the region, just as they would acclimate to its ribbon cane syrup, corn pone, and breakfast grits. When entering the forest from the west, one passes from the wide, flat space of the prairies into rooms bounded by green and brown vertical walls. Light sifts from above through the tree canopies as long, bright shafts. Sleepy swamps, covered with vines, branches, roots, and buttressed butts of baldcypress and broadleaf species, seem to come alive upon their entry by the sojourner. Indeed, to encounter for the first time the tall pines and widespreading hardwoods may seem somewhat like an initial visit to the narrow streets of Manhattan one sees the same amount of light. Someone from the plains might be claustrophobic another from the city homesick for the concrete jungle. It is in this, the South's environment, that the forester endeavors to grow trees for humanity's use and...

Agricultural And Industrial Transformation Period

Industrial logging transformed the forests of eastern North America during the period from 1850 to 1930. Forest harvesting had previously been a local activity to supply the timber and fuelwood needs of nearby villages and specialty products sought by foreign sovereigns (e.g., masts for British sailing ships). Small populations and primitive transportation systems limited the need and the ability, respectively, to lumber extensively. Timber was transported by log drives down rivers that had connections to ocean ports. Not until railroads were built into the more remote forested regions were many forests linked to population centers. This set the stage for the wholesale logging and destruction of eastern North America forests documented in Ontario (Howe and White 1913), the South (Martin and Boyce 1993), the Lake States and Northeast (Cronon 1983, M. Williams 1989), the Ozarks (Cunningham and Hauser 1989), and the central hardwood region (Hicks 1998). Beginning in 1850, the annual...

Nuclear versus organelle

As with animals, mtDNA in most higher plants is maternally inherited. There are a few exceptions to these rules, for example mtDNA is transmitted paternally in the redwood tree Sequoia sempervirens and biparentally inherited in some plants in the genus Pelargonium (Metzlaff, Borner and Hagemann, 1981). The overall function of plant and animal mitochondria is similar but their structures differ markedly. Unlike animal mtDNA, plant mitochondrial genomes regularly undergo recombination and therefore evolve rapidly with respect to gene rearrangements and duplications. As a result, their sizes vary considerably (40 000 - 2 500 000 bp). This variability makes it difficult to generalize to take one example, the mitochondrial genome of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha is around 186 608 bp long and appears to include three ribosomal RNA genes, 29 transfer RNA genes, 30 protein-coding genes with known functions and around 32 genes of unknown function (Palmer, 1991). Although the organization...

Forest Structure and Species

Because many hardwood trees are both sensitive to low winter temperatures and require a long and warm summer, the true boreal forest begins where the few remaining hardwoods become a minor part of the forest. Four coniferous genera dominate a major part of the taiga Picea (spruce), Abies (fir), Pinus (pine), and Larix (larch). The hardwoods, which largely occur in dwarf form, include Alnus (alders), Populus (poplars), Betula (birches), and Salix (willows). The hardwoods tend to be early successional species following disturbances such as fires or erosion deposition processes on riverbanks, which are eventually shaded out by slower-growing spruces and firs. Much of the main boreal forest is dominated by a few spruce species. These form a dense canopy in the central and southern taiga, with a ground cover of dwarf shrubs, such as cranberries and bilberries, and mosses and lichens. In northern Siberia, huge areas are covered almost solely by larch, and the canopy is much less dense. Pine...

Botanic Gardens in Colonies

At the same time, however, many botanic gardens by accident or design preserved part of the native vegetation in the gardens themselves. For example, the New York Botanical Garden (Figure 5) includes 16 ha (40 acres) of first growth, mixed hardwood forest. This remnant is a unique reminder of the forest which covered most of what is now the city of New York before Europeans wrested control from the indigenous population.

Influence of trees on the degradation of forest soils

The implication is that there should be an improved growth of pasture species if pine forest is converted back to pasture. This was supported by a trial in which the yield of grass and clover grown on pasture soil was far less than that on soil from beneath adjacent pines. Ovington (1958) found that hardwood and coniferous trees both produce a similar reduction in soil calcium levels. Certain species, including birches, hornbeam Carpinus betulus, sweet chestnut Castanea sativa and larch Larix spp. have reputations as 'soil improvers', and earthworm numbers increase considerably as birch crops age.

Native Diseases and insects That impact Oaks

In the past, diseases and insects were thought of as impediments to normal forest development. Outbreaks of them were the targets of aggressive suppression efforts, when economic threats to fiber or solid wood production were perceived. More recently, there has been increasing recognition that they are integral parts of functioning forest ecosystems and have beneficial effects (U.S. Forest Service 1988a). While non-native pathogens and insects are still marked for quick and forceful eradication, alternative responses to infestations or epidemics of natives are filtered through a more complex combination of human values that includes recreation, aesthetics, biodiversity, and wildlife habitat in addition to more finely tuned economic thresholds. increasingly, these considerations are leading to decisions to accept the consequences and take no action.

Resource Acceptability

The variety of resources and their physical and biochemical properties, including defensive mechanisms, is too great in any ecosystem for any species to exploit all possible resources. The particular physiological and behavioral adaptations of insects to obtain sufficient nutrients and avoid toxic or undigestable materials determine their feeding preferences, i.e., which resources they can or will exploit. Potential resources vary widely in nutritional value. Animal tissues have higher nutritional value than do plant tissues because of the preponderance of indigestible cellulose in plant tissues. Nutritional quality of foliage is higher than that of root tissue. Nutritional value varies between bark, sapwood and heartwood tissues (Hodges et al. 1968, Schowalter et al. 1998). In fact, exploitation of sapwood requires mutualistic interaction with fungi or bacteria, or other adaptations, to acquire sufficient nutrients from a resource that is largely indigestible cellulose (Ayres et al....

Climbing Growth Strategies in Monocots and Other Plants without Secondary Growth

Finally, future studies should incorporate studies based on hydraulic and mechanical properties of the stem. Many climbers show a reduction in structural Young's modulus during ontogeny, and this might be consistent with a relative increase in large-diameter vessels and increased hydraulic conductivity at the expense of relatively stiff tissues in the wood. The developmental and ecological trade-offs between mechanical functioning (stem stiffness and support) and hydraulic conductivity are complex 29 . While increased vessel diameter might influence stem stiffness in some climbers, many dicotyledonous climbers show relative increases in other compliant tissues during ontogeny such as rays and development of thinner-walled wood fibers. Such tissues are more easily interpreted as structural modifications that increase compliancy, resistance to fracture, and stem repair in vines and lianas.

Interactions of Diseases Insects And Past Disturbance

Important hardwood tree species in eastern forests, composing 82.5 to 100 of hardwood forest in some localities (Ashe 1911, Braun 1950). Estimates of American chestnut composition at large landscape scales ranged from 25 to 50 percent in the heart of the native range in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (Ashe 1911, Buttrick 1925). As chestnuts died, newly available growing space was quickly occupied by other species already positioned in the mid- and understory by earlier disturbances, such as repeated fire and logging. Chestnut replacement was variable, but typically oak species (Q. prinus L., Q. rubra L., and Q. velutina Lam., in particular) increased (Korstian and Stickel 1927, Stephenson 1986). On sites where previous fire had not been an important disturbance agent, thin-barked species such as red maple (Acer rubrum L.), black gum (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.), and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) succeeded along with the oaks (Arends and McCormick 1987, Lorimer 1980)....

Diseases and Insects Primarily Affecting Forest Structure

Most decay fungi are in the class Basidiomycetes and fall into one of two general categories, stem and butt decay or canker rot. Stem and butt decay fungi invade wounds made by insects, fire, storms, or mechanical means and decay a core of heartwood compartmentalized to varying degrees by wood anatomy and active tree defenses (Shigo 1979). There are many genera and species of stem and butt decay fungi that act on oaks some of the most common are Hericium erinaceus, Inonotus sulphureus, Polyporus lucidus, P. fissilis, and Pleurotus sapidus. The fruiting structures of some of these fungi are edible and serve as food for vertebrates and invertebrates alike. Canker rot fungi usually begin decaying heartwood after invading through dead and dying branch stubs, but, unlike other decay fungi, they can invade and kill sapwood and vascular cambium. By overcoming compartmentalization mechanisms of host trees in this way, an open and ever-enlarging canker face is produced. Common canker rot fungi...

Effects of Acorns on Mice

The results of supplemental feeding experiments have depended on the type of food and the season of feeding (Vessey 1987). Experimentally fed white-footed mice living in hardwood forest woodlots in Illinois showed increased densities, earlier breeding in the spring, and heavier

Fire And European Settlement

Fires, and now other forest disturbances such as grazing, logging, and fuelwood cutting, maintained the open, parklike character of eastern forests, with understories dominated by grasses and herbaceous plants (Komarek 1974, Wright and Bailey 1982). Frequent burning, grazing, and logging created forests of sprout origin dominated by oaks. In fact, when much of the area of southern New England, New York, and New Jersey was mapped by Hawley and Hawes (1912), they named it the Sprout Hardwoods Region. Fires burned extensively following wholesale logging of the Great Pineries of eastern North America (Howe and White 1913, Kittredge and Chittenden 1929). In the early 1900s, many of our most famous fires burned millions of acres of cutover forests and took the lives of many people in the Lake States. The cycle of logging and burning also greatly reduced the extent of pine forests in eastern North America. After the mature, seed-bearing pines were harvested, intense slash fires and repeated...

Fungus Problems for Southern Pines

Red heartrot is usually found only in southern pines over 50 years of age. Twenty-five percent of such older trees might be infected, thereby providing abundant habitat for housing the red cockaded woodpecker. As the heartwood deteriorates in circular fashion, the disease also bears the name red ring rot. Because many diseased stems do not exhibit fresh pitch flow from branch stubs and fire wounds, the lack of exuding sap may not reliably indicate the absence of the decay within the bole.

Evergreen and deciduous strategies aspects of competitive advantage

Almost all conifers - including the Wollemi pine Wollemia nobilis discovered in 1994 - are evergreen, the exceptions including the larches Larix, the Chinese swamp cypress Glyptostrobus lineatus, the three American swamp cypresses Taxodium (of which the Mexican swamp cypress T. mucronatum is evergreen in warm climates), and the dawn redwood Metasequoia glyptostroboides. This last species was described from fossil material in 1941 and then discovered as a living tree in 1945. As with most angiosperm (broadleaved) tree genera many oaks are

Population Age and Size

The distribution of genotypes in the boles of living trees has also been taken as an indication of the infection biology. Latent infection in beech has, for example been implied by the large-sized genets developing rapidly in trunks and branches after drought (Chapela and Boddy, 1988). Such large mycelia are thought to have been established during earlier phases of tree growth, and dormant propagules distributed extensively in the xylem were triggered to grow as mycelia by the onset of wood drying and increased aeration. Two other examples are provided by P. tremulae and P. pini. They initially establish in branches, the stubs of which ultimately become incorporated into trunk wood. In due course the sapwood becomes heartwood, again with decreased water content and improved aeration, triggering the development of active decay in the branch stubs buried in the heartwood (Haddow, 1938). The population structure of P. tremulae was consistent with this type of establishment (Holmer et...

Loblolly Pineshortleaf Pine

The prevalence of mixtures of these two species across much of the South suggests consideration of the forest cover type. Mixed forests of these pines occur over a major area of both the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont provinces. Oaks and hickories are generally associated with them, but some 50 broadleaf species invade and frequently take over the site. Sweetgum, blackgum, hickories, red oak, and post oak often replace the loblolly pine-shortleaf pine-hardwood subclimax types. Figure 2.12 Basal ground-level crook of shortleaf pine. From the horizontal position on the stem at the root collar, buds break into sprouts when trees are injured. Except for redwood, no conifers produce sprouts from roots. (authors' collection photo by Earl Stone) Figure 2.12 Basal ground-level crook of shortleaf pine. From the horizontal position on the stem at the root collar, buds break into sprouts when trees are injured. Except for redwood, no conifers produce sprouts from roots. (authors' collection...

In a Fragmented Landscape

Dormant season is an important selective force to determine which species of tree seedlings are successful in old-growth forests. The effect of deer on successional trajectories depends on which species among those present is highest on the deer preference list in a given forest. White-tailed deer in eastern North America prefer certain conifers, such as white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) and eastern hemlock, within mixed hardwood-conifer forests, but they prefer oaks within hardwood forests (Frelich and Lorimer 1985, Strole and Anderson 1992). Thus, deer may well help cause succession from stands dominated by hemlock to a mixture of hardwoods, including oaks, in one region, while speeding up succession from oak to other hardwoods, such as maples, in other regions. Deer browsing in old-growth oak-maple forests can also prevent long-term maintenance of oaks as a component of the forest. Old-growth sugar maple forests have gaps large enough that intermediately shade-tolerant species such...

Timber From The Tropics

For almost all purposes it is quite feasible to use temperate hardwoods instead of tropical timber. Oakand chestnut are examples. Many other timbers have excellentdu-rability and aesthetic qualities. New solutions with heat treated coniferous timber can attain very much the same appearance as hardwoods, and can fulfil at least half of thesamefunctions (Gielen, 1997). Wood dust1 formaldehyde (coniferous trees)

Ecology of Endangerment

Woods of Arkansas, USA was thought to be partially the result ofprevious efforts to conserve bottomland hardwood forests in the region. By preserving large habitat landscapes, we can overcome our lack of species knowledge, and thereby protect species we think we lost or do not even know exist. Beyond a habitat-based approach, our greatest scientific need when studying endangered species is likely to be more attention to evolutionary adaptability. Human impacts are so great and so rapid, that the best insurance against extinction will often be adaptability. It is unclear to what extent we can actually manage adaptability in endangered species, as opposed to simply having to work with the situation as it stands without any proactive efforts. Endangered species with ample genetic variability and behavioral plasticity may well be able to get through bottlenecks of low population size and recover from their at-risk status.

Describing Communities

Spotted owl encompasses several plant communities, such as the redwood forests of California, Douglas-fir western hemlock forests of western Oregon, and mixed coniferous forests of central Washington. Animal ecologists are thus faced with additional challenges in defining communities for example, Douglas-fir western hemlock forests do not incorporate all of the forest types inhabited by northern spotted owls. In addition, deciding the scale at which to conduct research at the community level is very important several authors have articulated concerns about scale - specifically the size of study areas (Smallwood 1995 Blackburn and Gaston 1996 Smallwood and Schonewald 1996).

Data And Methodological Issues

In the USA, data on the quantity of material flow at the first point in the material where an economic transaction takes place is quite good. This is the point where a specific flow may be considered to be a commodity. Examples of the first commodity stage are refined copper, aluminum and lead, clean sand and gravel, forest products, such as lumber, plywood and veneers, fuels such as clean coal, and crude oil delivered to refineries, and

Spruce Pine and Table Mountain Pine

Spruce pine, its weak wood similar to that of white fir and thus insignificant in the timber economy of the region, is often planted for its beauty. Naturally occurring on wet sites, usually surrounding slightly higher islands of longleaf pine, spruce pine's silvical characteristics closely resemble those for slash pine on similar hydric sites. While the fairly shade-tolerant spruce pine occurs in pure stands, it also seeds-in and successfully regenerates under the shade of hardwoods and other pines. The finely furrowed thin bark, in contrast to the thick, plated bark of other southern pines, makes the species prone to fire injury.40

Global Material Use Patterns

Table 22.5 illustrates the wide discrepancy between the overall world intensity of use and that for the USA. Overall, on a per capita basis, the USA uses more than six times as much as the world average, but there are some wide differences within individual categories. These variations in specific categories may be the result of actual differences in use patterns or the result of reporting inaccuracies. It is thought that the metals and NRO comparisons may be reasonably accurate because, being highly processed materials, they are probably counted in most countries' system of economic accounts. Minerals, which are predominately construction materials, and wood products, may be used locally without formal accounting, resulting in the world production being understated. Because

Insect defoliation and damage

Insect larvae are effective herbivores that can defoliate - and kill - entire trees and stands. In North America, insects and pathogens affect an area almost 50 times larger than fire with an economic impact nearly five times as great (Dale et al., 2001). Insect activities in this respect have been observed and studied in many parts of the world. In Britain, forests suffered severely in 1979, 'the year of the caterpillar', when defoliation of oak and other hardwoods affected whole hillsides in North Wales, mid-Wales, Cheshire, Lancashire, Devon and Dorset. Harding (1992) conducted a long-term study of the oak canopy of Chaddesley Woods National Nature Reserve (NNR) near Kidderminster, Worcestershire. This followed severe defoliation of broadleaves in 1979 and especially 1980. At the end of May 1980, following a very warm month with virtually no rain, numerous oaks, hazels and even ash were completely defoliated, though some oaks which had only just begun to flush escaped attack...

Expanding Populations

Related research has reinforced the importance of host tree density for population spread of southern pine beetle and other bark beetles (Amman et al. 1988, M. Brown et al. 1987, R.G. Mitchell and Preisler 1992, Sartwell and Stevens 1975). Schowalter and Turchin (1993) demonstrated that patches of relatively dense pure pine forest are essential to growth and spread of southern pine beetle populations from experimental refuge trees (see Fig. 6.6). Experimentally established founding populations spread from initially colonized trees surrounded by dense pure pine forest but not from trees surrounded by sparse pines or pine-hardwood mixtures.

Dissolved Organic Matter

Precipitation is a highly variable source of DOC, influenced by contact with dust and pollen (Aitkenhead-Peterson et al. 2003). When rain water is intercepted by leaves of the forest canopy, leaching removes significant amounts of OM. Fisher and Likens (1973) estimated an average value of 17.8mg L 1 for canopy drip in a hardwood forest in New England. Precipitation indirectly affects riverine DOM through its influence over soil moisture and hydrologic flowpaths. Water that moves near the soil surface has greater contact with the organic horizon of soils, resulting in higher DOC concentrations (Mulholland 2003). Flowpaths also influence the temporal response of DOC concentrations to increases in rainfall. In well-drained soils, an increase in streamwater DOC during a storm is expected due to shallow subsurface flowpaths and flushing of soil DOC. In contrast, in streams draining wetlands, surface flow is dominant and increased rainfall may produce a decrease in DOC concentrations as a...

The role of riparian vegetation in nutrient dynamics

Peteijohn and Correll (1984) and Correll et al. (1992) have studied the effect of coastal land use and terrestrial community mosaics on nutrient transport to coastal waters. The riparian deciduous hardwood forest bordering fields removes over 80 of nitrate and total phosphorus in overland flooding, and about 85 of nitrate in shallow groundwater drainage from cropland. But the nutrient discharge from croplands is higher than the discharge from pastures and other forests. Estuarine tidal marshes capture organic material and release dissolved nutrients (Fig. 4.31).

Improvement Of Nutritional Environment For Invertebrates

Basidiomycota also render palatable wood and leaf litter that is initially repellent or unpalatable to invertebrates due to the presence of allelopathic compounds. Again there are well-documented examples for termites (see references in Swift and Boddy, 1984). There are several examples of trees whose central heartwood is resistant to attack from termites when undecayed, but not once decay has begun. Of course, other aspects of enzyme conditioning (e.g. density reduction) may also play a part. Phenolics are also degraded by the mutualistic fungus partner on the fungus comb within termite nests (Taprab et al., 2005).

Some serious fungal pathogens

The basidiomycete Ganoderma causes root- and butt-rot (i.e. at the base of the tree) in a wide range of trees in many parts of the world. Ganoderma applanatum, which has a bracket-type fruiting body and is widespread in the northern hemisphere, attacks mainly deciduous trees including maples, beeches, limes, poplars, planes, oaks, horse chestnuts, birches, alders, ashes and willows, but is also found on conifers including firs and spruce. It is primarily saprotrophic rather than parasitic, being largely associated with trees whose roots already have large wounds. Trees infected by fungi often respond by producing chemically modified barriers, termed R-zones which help to arrest the spread of fungal hyphae and the consequent xylem dysfunction. Tests of this important ability against Ganoderma were made by Schwarze and Ferner (2003) who used sterilized wood blocks taken from a single London plane Platanus x acerifolia. The sapwood used as host material already contained naturally...

Spruce And Fir Forests

Red spruce enters the forest at altitudes as low as 4500 feet. From that elevation to about 5000 feet, it is found mixed with eastern hemlock and a variety of broadleaf trees. Above that, Fraser fir joins with the spruce to almost exclude the hardwoods and to form the dark, but not foreboding, spruce. Above 6200 feet in the Great Smoky Mountains, the fir often occurs in pure stands. In the moist gaps in the mountains where soil is deep, other shade-tolerant species such as yellow birch and American beech may replace these conifers. Mountain ash is another important deciduous tree in this otherwise coniferous forest.

Making Of A Shuttering

The spacing of the posts depends upon the thickness of the wall, usually 40 cm. On the bottom they are held together by timber rods, whilst the upper parts are held together by steel bolts 18 mm in diameter. The rods are made of hardwood such as beech, ash or maple and are conical. The dimensions at the top of the rod are 6 x 6 cm and at the bottom 4.5 x 4.5 cm. The holes in the posts should be slightly larger so that the rods are loose. The gable ends of the shuttering have a conical post fixed with nails. To prevent the shuttering falling inwards, a couple of separating boards are needed inside the shuttering. The ramming can be done either manually or by machine. When ramming by hand, ideally three rammers with different forms are needed (see Figure 13.21). The handle is heavy hardwood and the rammer is made of iron. The weight of a rammer should be around 6-7 kg.

Chestnut blight and the possibility of its control with fungal antagonists

The timber of the sweet chestnut of Europe (Castanea sativa) and the American chestnut (C. dentata) is an excellent decay-resistant hardwood, and the edible nuts produced by both species are consumed by wildlife and people. The damage caused to them by the chestnut blight fungus (also known as Asiatic blight), the ascomycete Cryphonectria parasitica, formerly known as Endothia parasitica, is thus all the more regrettable (Tattar et al., 1996). In the native range of the American chestnut along the Appalachian Mountains, 99.9 of the trees, or about 3.5 billion trees, have been killed in just a century. The chestnut formerly made up around 40-50 of the trees in the canopy over an area of some 800 000 km2 and by all accounts was a vigorous, quick-growing tree (Jacobs and Severeid, 2004). The loss is staggering and has led to very large changes in these forests at the very least, squirrel populations crashed and seven species of moth that fed exclusively on the chestnut are now extinct.

Limits on Ecological Forest Management

One timber company in Africa that has taken the long, but ultimately successful road toward FSC certification is CIB, the Societe Congolaise Industrielle des Bois, located in Pokola, Republic of Congo. CIB holds three large, contiguous timber concessions in the northern part of Congo near the country's borders with Cameroon and the Central African Republic. The concessions were granted to CIB by the Government of Congo for the purpose of managing the forest to produce timber, develop and operate manufacturing facilities, provide housing, schools, hospitals, and other amenities for workers and residents of the area (see Figure 10), and of course to provide revenues to the government through royalties paid on the timber harvested. CIB is a subsidiary of the Swiss-based company tt Timber Group, which was acquired in 2006 by DLH Nordisk, a large manufacturer of tropical hardwood products based in Denmark. Most of the wood products from the CIB concessions are bound for Europe, a market...

Other grazing mammals and birds

Small herbivorous mammals and birds play an equally important role in forests as the ungulates, and conservationists concerned with particular groups such as dormice (e.g. Briggs and Morris, 2002) have done much to investigate this interaction. Their effect is based not so much on the overall amount they eat but on what they eat, especially when it comes to seedlings and seeds. A 5-year study in New York State by Manson et al. (2001) used 40 x 40 m partial enclosures to manipulate the density of meadow voles Microtus pennsylvanicus and white-footed mice Peromyscus leucopus along the junction between a hardwood forest and a set of abandoned fields. They found seedling predation by meadow voles played a more important role than seed predation by white-footed mice in the invasion of trees. At the end of the study, there were an average of 19 tree seedlings ha-1 under low vole densities and 8 ha-1 under high density. The authors conclude that the main effect of the vole is to slow down...

Deforestation in India

Nevertheless, deforestation continued to be a major problem in India in the 1990s. In the industrial sector, shortages of raw materials and obsolete equipment caused forest-based processing enterprises to operate at a fraction of their capacity. The demand for pulp, paper, and manufactured wood products spiraled as urban and middle-class incomes rose and consumer demands for wood and paper products increased.

Virgin or Not a Study in Ecology

When eastern hemlock occurs with white pine, the two species compose a type occupying many old-field sites in the Southern Appalachians. As the less-tolerant white pine is not perpetuated without fire, harvest, or tree-topping storms, the species passes from the stand, leaving a pure hemlock forest. Encroachment by shade-tolerant hardwoods, principally oaks and hickories, may preclude establishment of a pure stand. In old fields, hemlock often seeds-in after white pine is well established.

Plants of secondary woodland

Some differences between the vascular and non-vascular floras of ancient and secondary forests result from changes inflicted on long-established communities that have considerable amounts of dead wood. In the virgin Norway spruce forests of Sweden five liverworts growing on logs (Calypogeia suecica, Lophozia incisa, Odontoschisma denudatum, Riccardia palmata and Scapania umbrosa), together with Herzogiella seligeri and Splachnum rubrum, did not survive initial logging and transition to a managed forest. Other secondary forests develop from the planting of formerly cultivated land (whose soils often have a high nutrient content), grasslands or heaths. Ruderals (weeds) are initially abundant on former farm soils, while characteristic grassland and heathland species may persist for a very long period, competing with the young trees until suppressed by shade. In North America secondary forest very often adjoins old forest, as it does in the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts. Conditions for...

Ecological Succession

While white-cedar competes reasonably well with broadleaf encroachers like gray birch, species of greater shade tolerance, such as blackgum and sweetbay, form the climax forest on swampy sites. Hardwood trees that get an early start in white-cedar bogs increase in vigor with time. As the health of the white-cedars declines and the canopy thins because of this competition (at about age 60), species composition abruptly changes. Dense shrub growth sometimes overtops the young conifers in that event, the white-cedar stems may be nearly as slender as pencils. White-cedar stands near the coast are killed by salt water blown in by storm tides. On the other hand, nearby stands of other species, especially hardwoods killed by salt spray, may be replaced by white-cedar. When that occurs, the water-loving conifer should be free of competition until past middle age. Then, broadleaf species like bay magnolia and holly intrude.

The Evolution of Disease Agents and Their Hosts

Chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica), a benign fungal associate of Asian relatives of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata), is a classic example of the result of introduction of a fungal pathogen to a new geographical area (Liebhold et al. 1996). Chestnut blight is the most destructive tree disease to strike North America. American chestnuts once ranged from Georgia and Alabama north to Maine and west to the Mississippi River. Chestnut was one of the dominant canopy trees in the eastern forests and produced mast that was consumed by many native mammals and birds. It was also one of the most economically important hardwoods, supplying lumber for construction, rot-resistant ties for railroads, and fine wood for manufacture of furniture.

Conservation biodiversity population integrity and uniqueness

Although bird populations of young conifer plantations are low, those of older exotic stands are usually as abundant, though different from, those of indigenous forests. In New Zealand, plantations miss out primarily on fruit-feeding and nectar-feeding guilds, from an avifauna which is relatively poor anyway parakeets Cyanoramphus spp., kaka Nestor merldionalis, yellowhead Mohoua ochrocephala, native pigeon Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae and kingfisher Halcyon sancta are amongst the birds which tend to be absent. The endangered kokako Callaeas cinerea, however, feeds on insects, which are abundant in the pine plantations where it is frequently encountered. Exotic plantations can thus be useful storehouses of biodiversity (and, as in New Zealand, sometimes more diverse than native forests). Plantations also offer protection to the native forest by preventing their unsustainable exploitation by providing the necessary wood products this allows natural assemblages of species to be more easily...

Habitat Compatibility

The match of primary (native) and secondary (adventive) environments, both in terms of climate and habitat compatibility, is generally accepted as a prerequisite of successful invasion. However, some habitats can support life forms that are for some historical and or evolutionary reasons not present in local floras, leaving such 'open niches' to invasions examples include climbing fern Lygodium japoni-cum in bottomland hardwoods from Louisiana to Florida, Acacia and Pinus tree species in South African fynbos shrub-lands, mangroves Rhizophora mangle in treeless coastal marshes of Hawaii, and the tree Cinchonapubescens in mountain shrub communities on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. These examples support the principle that the competitive inhibition of invaders increases with their functional similarity to resident abundant species.

Partial Clearing Systems Tropical Shelterwood System TSS

TSS was introduced in Nigeria and Ghana in the 1940s. In contrast to the MUS, the forests under management did not have enough regeneration potential, and therefore canopy openings were done several years prior to harvesting in order to promote adequate regeneration. Canopy opening by felling or poison-girdling selected trees was prescribed over a 5-year pre-harvest period. In practice, every tree not considered to have economic value was killed, resulting in severe canopy openings (65-80 of total basal area). This drastically increased light levels, leading to growth of vines and other light-demanding weeds instead of the desired regeneration of hardwood species. The system as practiced was not very effective. TSS could potentially work only in forests where light-demanding species are the desirable species and where climbers and weeds are not a big problem. In addition, the TSS is often too expensive for low-yielding forests (Dawkins and Philip 1998). The TSS was gradually abandoned...

Water Level Influences

Baldcypress trees are intolerant of long periods of shade from overtopping canopies. Such stands succeed to hardwood species. Broadleaf trees also take over baldcypress sites following storms or heavy cutting. New stands of sweetgum, Nuttall oak, willow oak, red maple, and water tupelo promptly invade. Where a pine or oak seed source is present, these trees take over openings and, if drainage is adequate, replace baldcypress.

Development and Succession Temporal Structure of Communities

As an example, an abandoned farm field may be colonized by grasses, which inhibit the germination of trees. The grasses attract herbivores, which create openings for shrubs by intense grazing. The shrubs provide shade, which enables pine to germinate and eventually to dominate. However, when the cover becomes too dense, the pine seedlings will not grow, and hardwood trees gain an advantage. Eventually, a climax community is formed as a hardwood forest. Populations of birds and other animals change as the food supply changes.

Box 72 Pulsed resources

Insect defoliation can also produce a concentrated pulse of nitrogen, redistributing it from the trees to the soil microbes in the droppings or frass (Lovett et al., 2002) with potential long-term consequences for reproduction and growth as the trees compete with the microbes to regain nitrogen. In eastern USA there are a number of periodical cicadas which swarm in spectacular numbers for up to a month every 13-17 years (including the 17-year cicada Magicicada septendecim), most recently in 2004. Densities of adults can reach over two and a half million per hectare over hundreds of square kilometres. While the havoc these plant-feeding insects can cause is well known, it seems they may have benefits when they die. Yang (2004) provides compelling experimental evidence that adding 120 dead cicadas per square metre in hardwood forests led to an increase in soil bacteria and fungi within a month with increase in soil ammonium of 412 over 30 days and 199 increase in soil nitrate over 100...

Measures of Dimension Analysis

Foresters use dimension analysis to gauge the status of a forest with respect to wood products. The procedure normally includes more measurements than are given here. For primary productivity studies, the parameters of interest in dimension analysis are diameter at breast height and tree height.

Oak Trees Acorns and Bears

Among the three species of bears native to North America (polar bears Ursus maritimus , brown bears U. arctos , and black bears U. americanus ), only black bears are closely tied to hardwood forests, and then only in parts of their range. In the past, black bears were distributed throughout North America, but their current distribution is significantly reduced (Figure 15.1). In the southeastern United States, in particular, black bears are limited to mountainous or coastal areas, and they are conspicuously absent from the Piedmont region. Oak distribution in the eastern United States closely matches black bear distribution (see Figures 2.1 and 2.2, this volume), suggesting a link between oak forests and black bear populations but not answering the question Why are oak forests important to black bears

Black Bears in the Oak Forest

Although their range and distribution is not completely coincidental with the distribution of oak species in North America, black bears tend to have better success in hardwood forests dominated by oaks. For example, black bears, in general, have higher reproductive rates in the eastern deciduous forests than in the western coniferous forests (Bunnell and Tait 1981). They nearly disappeared from the Piedmont region of the southeastern United States when hardwood forests were converted to agriculture. They tend to be more abundant and exist at higher densities in hardwood forests than in any other habitat in which they are A good example of the importance of acorns to bears and of the flexibility of bears' diets when acorns are not available can be seen in the food habits of bears over a 10-year period in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Bear research in the park (1982-1992), coincided with the arrival of gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar). Gypsy moths infested the park from 1987 through...

Factors Influencing Microclimatic Regimes in Dead Wood

Microclimate varies spatially and temporally (Boddy, 1984, 1986) over a range of scales. At the forest scale two important microclimatic gradients are evident a horizontal gradient from forest interior to forest edge, clearcut or natural canopy gap and a vertical gradient from forest floor to canopy. Forest interiors and lower levels in stands tend to have higher air humidity, lower wind speed, lower maximum and higher minimum temperatures compared to gaps, forest edges and open land, and gradients run from stable to variable microclimatic conditions (e.g. Chen et al, 1993 Morecroft et al, 1998 Ritter et al, 2005). Microclimatic stress is hence low in wood decomposing on the forest floor in closed forests, while fungi in dead wood in the canopy or on the floor of exposed forest edges are subject to stressful conditions. In addition, environmental conditions vary vastly between functional sapwood (with its high water content and low aeration), dysfunctional sapwood and heartwood (both...

Oaks Hickories and their Deciduous

Upland hardwood types of the southern United States often intermingle with conifers to form mixed stands of broadleaf and needleleaf trees. Depending on soil, physiography, fire history, and past land use, pure deciduous forests occur over acreages of various sizes. Numerous oak species, several hickories, yellow-poplar, maples, sweetgum, American beech, sycamore, and several birches predominate. Found with these trees are about 100 other hardwood species, many of minor commercial value for particular uses. In mountainous regions, hardwood forests cover vast areas to the relative exclusion of both southern and white pines, eastern redcedar, eastern hemlock, red spruce, and Fraser fir. This is true for the Ozark and Ouachita mountains as well as for the Southern Appalachian chain, the Mississippi Bluff Hills of loess soils, and the Post Oak and Cross Timbers of Texas. Semantics complicates descriptions of upland hardwood forests. Technically, hardwoods are broadleaf trees. Most of them...

Energy flow through forest ecosystems

Figure 8.5 Energy budgets for three of the main consumer organisms in the hardwood forests of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest of New Hampshire. The sizes of the strips through the boxes are proportional to the amount of energy passing through each process in kcal m 2 of ground in the forest. Energy ingested in the form of organic matter is either assimilated into the organism or lost in material egested from the body. This energy is then used for either respiration or put into new tissue through growth or reproduction. Much of the energy taken in by caterpillars is not absorbed but remains in the material that they egest as faeces. Shrews being 'warmblooded' use much of their energy in respiration (in maintaining their high body temperature) while the 'cold-blooded' salamanders put proportionately more energy into growth and reproduction. (Redrawn from data in Gosz et al., 1978. Scientific American 238.)

Models of Succession

Diagrammatic representation of interactions between southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, and fire in the southeastern coniferous forest. Successional transitions extend from left to right dotted arrows indicate direction of movement. Fire is a regular feature of the generally dry uplands but moves into generally moist lowlands where drought or southern pine beetle creates favorable conditions for combustion. Southern pine beetle is a regular feature of both forests but is most abundant where pines occur at high density and stress levels. Fire is necessary for regeneration of pines, especially following succession to hardwoods if fire return is delayed. Schowalter et al. (1981a) with permission from the Entomological Society of America. Diagrammatic representation of interactions between southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, and fire in the southeastern coniferous forest. Successional transitions extend from left to right dotted arrows indicate direction of movement....

Decay in Attached Branches

The most detailed studies on fungal community development in standing trees have focused on the sapwood of attached ash and oak branches (Boddy and Rayner, 1983 Boddy et al., 1987). In southern Britain the most common primary colonizers of oak branches were Peniophora quercina, Stereum gausapatum, Vuille-minia comedens, Phellinus ferreus and Phlebia rufa (Boddy and Rayner, 1983). Latent presence has been demonstrated for the first three (Hirst, 1995 Boddy, 2001), but presumably they all have S- and R-selected characters allowing them to exist latently in functional sapwood, and then to develop overtly as mycelia as soon as the high water content poor aeration regime is alleviated. T. versicolor, P. radiata and Stereum hirsutum were identified as combative secondary colonizers whose establishment depends on conditions having ameliorated sufficiently to allow their growth, and whether they are better combatants under the conditions obtaining. Other secondary colonizers, e.g. Hyphoderma...

Stability of Community Variables

Diversity may dampen the spread of insects or pathogens that could threaten some species, hence disrupting community structure. For example, the diversity of pines and hardwoods in the southern United States reduces spread of southern pine beetle populations (Schowalter and Turchin 1993). Ostfeld and Keesing (2000) found that the number of human cases of Lyme disease, caused by the tick-vectored spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, declined with species richness of small mammals and lizards but increased with species richness of ground-dwelling birds (Fig. 10.10). These data indicated that disease epidemiology may depend on the diversity of reservoir hosts, but disease incidence generally should decline with increasing dilution of reservoir hosts by nonhosts.

Box 82 The benefits of symbiotic nitrogen fixation

The loss of nitrogen (in whatever form) is also affected by the vegetation. If the seasonality of plant activity does not match the realizability of N supply from microbes, it can leave a pool of unused nitrogen that is readily leached. This is seen in early spring in northern hardwood forests, where microbial mineralization of organic matter and nitrification begin before uptake by plants becomes an important sink. Muller and Bormann put forward the vernal dam hypothesis in 1976 which proposes that spring ephemerals which grow before canopy closure take up nitrogen and other nutrients before they can be leached, and that these are subsequently made available to other plants as they die back from lack of light and decompose. They found that the yellow trout lily Erythronium americanum growing in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest saved almost half of the important nutrients from being washed away they used 43 and 48 of the potassium and nitrogen, respectively, released in the...

Decay in Felled Logs and Large Branches

Fungal community development in bulky wood on the forest floor has been studied in a number of cases, especially in Fagus spp., which we describe here as a model system for wood decay in angiosperms. Decay community development in other deciduous tree species seems to follow similar pathways (Gricius et al., 1999 Hood et al., 2004 Lindhe et al., 2004), though some differences are evident reflecting differences in bark and wood morphology and wood chemistry. In many Betula spp. the bark is usually intact until final decay stages (J. HeilmannClausen, personal observation), making access for secondary colonizers more difficult. Similarly, species which possess true heartwood, e.g. Quercus spp., present widely different decay environments, where decay proceeds following different pathways in sapwood and heartwood. There have been detailed studies on fungal community structure of felled beech logs, at the mycelial level, during the first 4.5-5 years of decay (Coates and Rayner, 1985a,...

Impacts of Acorns and Oaks

The locations of wintering areas are determined by acorn availability (Ellis and Lewis 1967, Hurst 1992). In movements that coincide with mast availability and acorn drop, turkeys typically shift their ranges from fields and pastures to forests in fall and winter (Eaton et al. 1970, Barwick and Speake 1973, Speake et al. 1975, Eaton et al. 1976, Everett et al. 1985, Porter 1992). In a study of wild turkeys in managed pine forests, the turkeys responded to mast availability by using bottomland hardwoods more in fall and winter (Exum et al. 1987). Gould's turkeys have moved as much as 12.7 km between summer and fall ranges, probably to take advantage of mast crop availability (Schemnitz et al. 1990). When mast crops are good, these shifts in habitat can be very distinct and abrupt (Eaton et al. 1970, Barwick and Speake 1973, Healy 1992a).

Alternative to Supplying the Worlds Timber Demand

During the past decade, while natural forest areas have continued to decline at the global level, forest plantations have increased in both tropical (+20 million ha) and temperate (+12 million ha) regions of the world (FAO 2001a). In 1995, tropical and subtropical plantations comprised 45 of the global net forest plantation area. The total area of tropical and subtropical plantations was between 40 and 50 million ha (Evans 1999). Hardwoods covered 32.3 million ha, 57 of all plantations in the tropics and subtropics, and 25 of the global area (Varmola and Carle 2002). In the last decade, the rate of conversion of natural forest to plantation forest in tropical regions was about equal to the increase in forest cover, resulting from natural re-establish-

Management of Oaks for Turkeys

While turkeys are usually associated with extensive, mature hardwood forests (Schorger 1966), mast-producing forests are not absolutely essential to wild turkey populations. As a striking example, Rio Grande turkeys have expanded their range into treeless areas of west Texas (Kothmann and Litton 1975, Litton 1977). Even for the eastern subspecies, extensive stands of timber are not necessary (Little 1980). Eastern turkeys in Minnesota occupy habitats with as little as 12 forested cover (Hecklau et al. 1982).

Expenditure per Progeny Further Reading

Many other organisms, including perennial plants and most vertebrates, do not engage in such suicidal bouts of reproduction but reproduce again and again during their lifetime. Such organisms are iteroparous (repeated parenthood). Even within organisms that use either the big-bang or the iteroparous tactic, individuals and species differ greatly in numbers of progeny produced. Annual seed set of different species of trees ranges from a few hundred or a few thousand in many oaks (which produce relatively large seeds - acorns) to literally millions in redwood trees. Seed production may vary greatly even among individual plants of the same species grown under different environmental conditions an individual poppy produces as few as four seeds under stress conditions, but as many as a third of a million seeds when grown under conditions of high fertility. Fecundity is equally variable among fish the large ocean sunfish, Mola mola, is perhaps the most fecund of all vertebrates with a...

Understanding Temporal Variation in Aspen Forests To Assess Management Effects on Timber Production and Wildlife Habitat

A major challenge facing natural resource professionals is to sustain natural systems and human commodities in the context of a growing human population and its associated demands on natural resources (Kessler et al., 1992). Aspen, for example, is a commercially valuable timber resource that is used to produce pallets, plywood, and pulpwood for paper, cardboard, and boxes. In the Lake States (Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin), aspen constitutes more than half of the industrial timber harvested annually, produces approximately four million cords of pulpwood (Piva, 2003), and with a value of more than 2 billion annually ( 60 per cord delivered to the mill Miller, 1998). In addition to economic demands onaspen, several wildlife species including ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), white-tailed deer, many small mammals, and cavity-nesters also depend on it to meet their life requisites (Stelfox, 1995). As such, Michigan's aspen management goal includes maintaining a diversity of aspen age...

Determining Spatial and Temporal Changes in Lynx Habitat

Areas of early successional vegetation types important to hares, interspersed with a mosaic of mature forest patches (Keith et al., 1993 Agee, 2000). The periodic occurrence of intense fires in the boreal forest has been hypothesized as a driving force behind the lynx-hare cycle (Fox, 1978). The combination of fire suppression practices and naturally longer fire return intervals in the mesic hardwood forests of the Upper Peninsula results in less frequent disturbances of a lower intensity. An examination of the disturbance regimes, and resulting forest conditions during the presettlement era could reveal the inherent capacity of the region to support lynx. Historical fire regimes in northern Michigan have been examined previously by classifying ecologically similar areas based on abiotic components only, without considering vegetation attributes (Cleland et al., 2004). These components (landform, lake density, soil texture, soil drainage) influence a landscape's susceptibility to fire...

Southern Pines as a Food Supply for Squirrels

Pine seeds are a seasonal staple in the diet of tassel-eared squirrels in the southern Rocky Mountains (Farentinos 1972) and also of fox squirrels in southeastern United States (Loeb and Lennartz 1989, Weigl et al. 1989, Wigley et al. 1989). Even in Kansas, where pines are not native, fox squirrels feed on seeds from young cones when they can find them, and do so as early as June (C. C. Smith personal observation). Pine seed kernels are high in protein and lipid content and energy concentration. Although pine seeds are an effective source of highly nutritious food, they are available to squirrels only until the seeds are shed from the cones. The seeds are small enough that an animal as large as a squirrel is unlikely to be able to compete with smaller mammals and birds to exploit individual seeds on the ground once they have been shed from the cones, and squirrels have not evolved cheek pouches that would allow them to carry and cache seeds after extracting them from cones. Squirrels...

Assessing decay class and wood density

The state of CWD decay is often assessed by classifying CWD pieces into different decay classes. Such decay classes refer to the progressive change in solidity, integrity of shape, and characteristics of the log surface that occur as a result of the decay process (Pyle and Brown 1999). Typically, CWD is placed into three or five decay classes, but as many as eight or ten have been used. Such classes have been defined in a variety of different ways by different investigators (see Table 7.2). Commonly, classes have been defined on the external characteristics of the CWD, such as bark cover the presence, colour, and abundance of attached needles, twigs, and branches the cover of bryophytes and lichens species and size of fungal sporocarps the colour, crushability, moisture, and structure of the wood the type of decay present (brown vs white rot, for example) whether the exposed wood is bleached whether the log supports itself or has collapsed under its own weight the age, size, and...

Restoring Ecological Communities From Theory to Practice

Spillover effects of single species restoration are not necessarily limited to the flora of the target species' habitat. In some cases, other members of the associated animal assemblage benefit. In the southeastern United States, efforts to restore habitat of the endangered Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) include thinning midstory hardwood vegetation and performing prescribed burns, thus promoting loblolly-shortleaf and longleaf pine forest with a more open herbaceous plant understory. In these sites specifically managed for the Red-cockaded woodpecker, Conner et al. (2002) found significantly more diverse and numerous breeding bird communities than in unmanaged mature forest control sites. Physical habitat improvement to a mountain stream in Quebec resulted in increases in target trout biomass as well as benefits to nontarget animals, including crayfish, mink, and raccoons, which increased in biomass and activity (Armantrout 1991).

Futuro Forestal SA balancing nature and business wwwfuturoforestalcom

Futuro Forestal is located in the Chiriqui region, Panama, on the Pacific side of the isthmus. Since its foundation in 1994, Futuro Forestal has engaged in reforestation with mostly native species that produce fine tropical hardwoods of high value, carbon credits, and non-timber forest products, providing investment opportunities to its clients. The company has been the first to sell carbon credits from reforestation as a business in Panama. They have established mixed plantations of six tropical hardwood species in parcels of different sizes. The selection of species and their spatial distribution is defined by a detailed site examination. An additional 35 species are planted for biodiversity and research reasons. Terminalia amazonia is the most promising species so far.

Timber Sheet Materials

All types of timber, both softwood and hardwood, are used with few exceptions. Products made of chipboard have no particular requirements and can even be made from minced demolition timber. The substances used for glue in the production process and the impregnation materials used in external timber cladding can come from questionable sources (see Chapters 17 and 19). There are generally few environmental problems relating to the production processes at sawmills or joinery shops. Wood dust can, however, be carcinogenic this is particularly the case for oak and beech. Synthetic glues and impregnation liquids can pollute the working environment as well as the immediate natural environment, as effluent in either water or air. Softwoods can release small amounts of natural formaldehyde for some time after installation, but this is not known to cause problems for people with allergies (Englund, 1997). Cedar contains thujaplicines which are known allergens and should not be used internally....

Management Considerations for Squirrels and Oaks

The natural life span of individual trees is much longer than that of an individual squirrel. Trees are much easier to find and kill than squirrels and are of much greater economic importance than squirrels, which is why human activity can directly change forest composition and, in turn, indirectly change squirrel populations. The ideal forest for gray and fox squirrels would have a mix of species of red and white oaks and some species of the Juglandaceae. For fox squirrels, conditions would be improved by having a mix of pines and hardwoods. The economic yield from the rapid growth and turnover in trees has favored planting monocultures of pines as a silvicultural practice. Millions of acres of hardwood forests in the southeastern United States have been converted to agriculture and pine plantations since the 1930s, particularly in the oak-pine uplands and the mixed hardwood bottomlands in major river valleys (Smith and Linnartz 1980 and references therein). Clearcutting and...

Fire and Oak Management

In the dense shade of mature mixed-hardwood stands, oak seedlings and seedling sprouts do not develop into competitive stems. Overstory removal by either partial or complete cuttings fails to stimulate height growth of oak reproduction but does release regeneration of well-established shade-tolerant species and facilitates establishment of fast-growing shade-intolerant seedlings. Subsequent stand development is to a mixed mesophytic forest with oak as a minor component or altogether absent (McGee 1979, Abrams 1992, Lorimer et al. 1994). This successional trend is a relatively recent phenomenon, having developed during the past 75 years, and is tied to the exclusion of fire from eastern hardwood forests (Little 1974, Van Lear and Johnson 1983, Lorimer 1993). Foresters have been admonished for most of the twentieth century to avoid burning in hardwood stands, primarily because it is well documented that wildfires cause a marked increase in heartrots in hardwoods (Nelson et al. 1933,...

Secondary successions in abandoned fields

Successions on old fields have been studied particularly along the eastern part of the USA where many farms were abandoned by farmers who moved west after the frontier was opened up in the 19th century (Tilman, 1987, 1988). Most of the precolonial mixed conifer-hardwood forest had been destroyed, but regeneration was swift. In many places, a series of sites that were abandoned for different, recorded periods of time are available for study. The typical sequence of dominant vegetation is annual weeds, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, early successional trees and late successional trees.

Types Of Wooden Cladding

Heart sidefacing the outside in all exterior panelling. It is also a good principle to lay the boarding the same way as it has grown, because the root end has the most heartwood (Figure15.24). Interior panellingThe strength of timber is not so critical for internal use. Quickly grown timber serves most purposes. Softwoods are most commonly used, both as spruce and pine. Hardwoods can also be used. Birch is quite abrasion proof aspen has a soft surface and a relatively good insulation value, and is often used in saunas. Because of its lasting light colour, it is also attractive as a ceiling. Other hardwoods appropriate for interior panelling are oak, ash, elm, lime and alder. Alder is particularly good for bathrooms because it tolerates changes between very damp and very dry conditions without cracking.

The role of animals in successions

Determining the character of a community is not just a measure of their role as the primary producers, it is also a result of their slowness to decompose. The plant population not only contributes biomass to the community, but is also a major contributor of necromass. Thus, unless microbial and detritivore activity is fast, dead plant material accumulates as leaf litter or as peat. Moreover, the dominance of trees in so many communities comes about because they accumulate dead material the greater part of a tree's trunk and branches is dead. The tendency in many habitats for shrubs and trees to succeed herbaceous vegetation comes largely from their ability to hold leaf canopies (and root systems) on an extending skeleton of predominantly dead support tissue (the heart wood).

Types Of Wooden Floors

Batten ffooringisa mixture ofthefirst two methods (see Figure15.28). Here, thefloor-boards are locked into position by battens of hardwood. Re-use possibilities are very high. This floor can be laid without being dried in a chamber drier, because it is easy to move the boards closer together later on by loosening the battens. Unlike other timber floors, in batten flooring individual floorboards can easily be changed. Parquet. The material normally used for parquet flooring is hardwood such as oak and beech. Birch and ash can also be used.These are sawn into long boards of 50 to 130 cm or short boards of15 to 50 cm, and are tongued and grooved.The short board is normally 14 to 16 mm thick the long board is 20 mm thick.The breadth varies from 4 to 8 cm. A number of laminated parquet floors have a top layer of hardwood 4 to 6 mm thickglued onto a softwood base of chipboard. Urea-formaldehyde glue is usually used for this. Parquet flooring is nailed or glued directly to the floor...

Effects on Particular Organs or Organ Systems

Occupational exposure to a variety of substances is known to be capable of causing asthma. This is an allergic reaction in which exposure causes histamine to be released. Histamine stimulates the bronchi to contract, greatly increasing breathing resistance. This is known to affect bakers exposed to flour and workers exposed to wood dust, as well as butchers exposed to fumes caused by heat-sealing PVC films for wrapping meat. Some people become sensitized to toluene diisocyanate, which is used in polyurethane products. Subsequent exposures to very small amounts can cause a severe asthma attack.

Effects of Fire Intensity and Season of Burning

Literature concerning effects of fire in hardwood stands is often conflicting. For example, some researchers have reported that fires have occasionally created oak-dominated stands (Roth and Hepting 1943, Carvell and Maxey 1969, Ward and Stephens 1989), probably because intense fires controlled competition and stimulated rapid growth of oak reproduction (Johnson et al. 1989, Lorimer 1989). Conversely, others have reported that fires have had little effect on species composition in young stands (Johnson 1974, McGee 1979, Waldrop et al. 1985, Augspurger et al. 1987). Because of these conflicting results, it has been difficult to predict effects of fires on young hardwood reproduction. The variation in results is due in large part to differences in season of burning and intensity of fire. Season of burning is important because it affects the physiological condition of the plant and the ability of species to resprout. Fire intensity is critical because certain species, such as the oaks,...

Shelterwood Cutting with Prescribed Fire to Control Competition

Schematic diagram of the shelterwood-burn technique. A high-quality oaks B hickories, poor-quality oaks, and yellow-poplars C American beech, flowering dogwood, and red maple D mixed-hardwood regeneration dominated by yellow-poplar and E mixed-hardwood regeneration dominated by oaks. Figure 18.2. Schematic diagram of the shelterwood-burn technique. A high-quality oaks B hickories, poor-quality oaks, and yellow-poplars C American beech, flowering dogwood, and red maple D mixed-hardwood regeneration dominated by yellow-poplar and E mixed-hardwood regeneration dominated by oaks. Closely related to wildlife management is the concept of ecosystem restoration. If frequent burning is prescribed, especially growing season burns, after the initial shelterwood cut, a hardwood savanna can be created. Repeated burning at short intervals favors grasses and herbaceous plants over woody species. Use of this variation of the technique could restore some of the hardwood savannas...

Extinctions and Extirpations due to Disease Agents

Several other tree diseases, including white pine blister rust (Cronar-tium ribicola), Dutch elm disease (Ophiostoma ulmi see chapter 5), dogwood anthracnose (Discula destructiva), and sudden oak death canker (Phytoph-thora ramorum), also are potential agents of extirpation of native trees. Recent reports indicate that sudden oak death canker also affects several other woody plants of the North American Pacific coast, including the coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens).

Conservation in practice

Over time these patches become smaller and the gaps between them become larger. The ratio of edge to interior habitat of the patches becomes larger (Temple 1986). We have seen this clearly in the fragmentation of the eastern hardwood forests of North America since settlement in the 1600s, and in the eucalypt woodlands of Australia in the last century (Saunders et al. 1993). This process occurred in the 1300s in New Zealand with the arrival of Maori (Worthy and Holdaway 2002) and much earlier in Europe during medieval times. Fragmentation is seen most commonly in the transformation of forest or woodland into farmland, but also in the change from native grassland into agriculture. The hostility of the matrix is important too. Thus, a matrix of young regenerating forest or even exotic plantation is less hostile for animals in old growth forest patches than a matrix of agriculture. Human residential development is yet more hostile (Friesen et al. 1995). A...

Soil Ecology In The Third Millennium

In the forest ecosystem study, a combination of chemical and biological indices was used to measure soil quality in five watersheds arranged along an elevational gradient at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina. The selected characteristics of the elevation gradient stands are presented in Table 8.3 (Knoepp et al., 2000). The sites represented a gradient in vegetation and elevation and included xeric oak-pine (OP), cove hardwood (CH), mesic mixed-oak at low and high elevations (MO-L, MO-H), and mesic northern hardwood (NH) vegetation. The sites were then ranked on a range of soil chemical characteristics, nitrogen availability, litter decomposition rates, forest floor mass, coarse woody debris standing crop, soil oribatid mite populations as numbers and total species, and Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index (Table 8.4) (Knoepp et al., 2000), and then several measures of soil carbon availability CO2 flux, microbial carbon,...

Functions of Agroforestry Systems

Agroforestry is important as a carbon sequestration strategy because of carbon storage potential in its multiple plant species and soil, as well as its applicability in agricultural lands and in reforestation. Proper design and management of agroforestry practices can make them effective carbon sinks. As in other land-use systems, the extent of C sequestered will depend on the amounts of C in standing biomass, recalcitrant C remaining in the soil, and C sequestered in wood products. Average carbon storage by agroforestry practices has been estimated to be 9, 21, and 50 Mg C ha-1 in semiarid, subhumid, and humid tropical regions (Schroeder 1994 Dixon 1995). Agroforestry can also have an indirect effect on C sequestration when it helps decrease pressure on natural forests, the largest sink of terrestrial C. Another indirect avenue of C sequestration is through the use of agroforestry technologies for soil conservation, which could enhance C storage in trees and soils (Young 1997)....

Californias Oak Woodlands

California's oak woodlands, also known as hardwood rangelands, cover 10 million acres, or 10 of the state (Bolsinger 1988, Greenwood et al. 1993, Pacific Meridian Resources 1994). These areas have an overstory tree canopy predominantly in the oak genus (Quercus spp.) and an understory of exotic annual grasses and forbs and occasional native perennial grasses (Griffin 1973, Bartolome 1987, Holmes 1990, and Allen et al. 1991).

Spatial and Temporal Aspects of Oak Woodland Sustainability

General characteristics of California's important hardwood rangeland oak species Most common with tanoak, madrone, mixed conifer forest species also with coast live oak, interior live oak, and blue oak More common on forest sites found on moister hardwood rangelands well-drained soils Protected by Forest Practice Act on timberlands commercial properties for finished lumber Cross-reference for hardwood rangeland classifications in the Sierra Nevada Montane hardwood Montane hardwood hardwood Montane hardwood hardwood Montane hardwood Acreage of California hardwood rangeland habitat types hardwood

Forest resources and products

Timber quality varies with speed of growth and the conditions under which trees are grown its nature varies in the different plant groups. Timbers are usually classified as softwoods coming from conifers (gymnosperms) and hardwoods from broadleaved trees such as oak and beech (angiosperms). It should be noted that these are commercial timber expressions since 'softwoods' range in density from 380 kg m 3 in western red cedar Thujaplicata to 672 kg m 3 in yew Taxus baccata, and in 'hardwoods' from 140kgm 3 in balsa Ochroma pyramidale to 1280-1370 kg m 3 in lignum vitae Guaiacum officinale. (Water has a density of 1000 kg m 3 or a specific gravity of 1.) The strength of timbers depends upon their structure and the speed of their growth. As noted in Chapter 1 most timbers contain concentric rings which in seasonal climates outside the tropics are produced annually. These annual rings are composed of earlywood grown in the spring and latewood grown in the summer. In the softwoods water...

Industrial Legacies In Entrepreneurial Philadelphia

Landscapes, primarily urban woodlands, wetlands, and meadows. Over the past three decades, the geometries and geographies of these watershed areas, combined with a generation of fiscal neglect and political ambivalence (adjusting for inflation, the park has not experienced a budget increase since 1970, and is a fraction of its pre-1970 total see Figure 13.2) full-time personnel has been cut by two-thirds per capita park expenditures are among the lowest in the nation (Harnik 2000)), have resulted in extensive and, in places, intensive landscape level environmental changes. Soil erosion, runoff, and pollution threaten many of the streams coursing through the city's interior. An extensive, mid-successional hardwood forest is increasingly exposed to external disturbances and stressors like disease and pollution. But perhaps the most identifiable indicator of change is the expanding diversity and density of non-native, weedy species whose ranks now constitute one-third of the park's...

Oak Woodland Ecosystem Processes

Oak removal was historically recommended as a means of increasing forage production on hardwood rangelands (George 1987). For the deciduous blue oak, most studies have demonstrated increased forage production following tree removal on areas previously containing over 25 canopy cover and receiving over 20 inches of rain (Kay 1987, Jansen 1987). Conversely, where there is less than 20 inches of rain, areas with low blue oak canopy (less than 25 cover) consistently had higher forage yields than adj acent open areas (Holland and Morton 1980, Frost and McDougald 1989). in areas with moderate blue oak canopy cover (25 to 60 ), there was a variable canopy effect on forage production (McClaren and Bartolome 1989a). in areas with less than 20 inches of rainfall, zones under the canopy had consistently higher forage production throughout the growing season. in areas with over 20 inches of annual rainfall, the open areas had higher forage production than the areas under the moderate oak canopy....

The Sustainable Window

The outer glass is held in place with linseed oil putty and the two inner panes are fixed on strips of untreated wool.The outside layer of the window is the part mostdirectly exposed to the outdoor climate including burning sun and driving rain. The outside frame in a sustainable window is therefore designed so that it can be easily replaced, and the casement has smaller panes of glass in case of breakage.The sill is madefrom mature oak or pine heartwood. During the summer, the two inner window frames can be removed to improve the transparency of light to the interior. The window is fixed to the building structure with screws.

Ecosystem values ofplantations and natural forests

Known as woodland key habitats, are to be both identified and retained (see Sections 6.4.1-2). However, as demand for timber grows, it is inevitable that plantations will increase in area. More of our commercial timber already comes from plantations (34 - despite their comparatively small area Table 1.1) and managed secondary growth forests - i.e. felled and regrowing (22 ) -than from less managed forests (34 ) (Sedjo and Botkin, 1997). Such plantations often lack the biodiversity of unmanaged forests. In temperate and northern forests, the field and ground layer vegetation are key components in maintaining biodiversity. Fungi, lichens, herbs and shrub species differ considerably between plantation forests grown on former pasture and the sites of felled older woodlands, though all are subject to shade as the woodland matures, so plants characteristic of open sites are gradually lost, often with some of the associated animals. Most, but not all, comparisons of unmanaged forests and...

Restoration of Areas Invaded by Aggressive Vegetation

Depending on the objectives of the restoration project. In Indonesia, successful experiences have been reported on the use of species of Acacia to restore sites dominated by Imperata cylindrica (Kuusipalo et al. 1995 Otsamo et al. 1999). In the Kibale forest in western Uganda, exotic softwoods (Pinus cari-baea, Cupressus lusitanica) were planted in the 1960s and 1970s to convert grassland areas into wood fiber-producing sites. In the mid-1990s, tree regeneration was assessed under plantations and compared with adjacent forest. Diversity and abundance of natural woody regeneration were higher under pine than under cypress the pines apparently provided quick shading which suppressed the grass earlier than the cypress. The composition of the advanced regeneration under plantations differed from that under natural forest. Plantations had similar numbers of species under their canopies compared to natural forests, but these were less valuable species, especially within the commercial...

Adhesives and fillers

Adhesives are usually divided into mineral, synthetic, animal and plant products (Table 17.2). Fillers are produced in the same way as ordinary adhesives and mixed in with powdered stone, fossil meal, wood dust, chalk, perlite and similar substances. Bonding of timber, plywood fixing of metals Bonding of mineral wool, wood fibreboards, chipboards, plywood and cork tiles plywood Bonding of timber and fillers fixing of soft floor coverings, wallpaper, wood products Bonding of plywood Bonding of timber and plywood fixing of timber Bonding of timber and plywood Bonding of plywood was rediscovered in Europe around the sixteenth century. The first glue factory was built in the Netherlands in 1690. Around 1875 the manufacture of plywood started, and at the turn of the century laminated timber construction began. Synthetic adhesives came into production around 1930 and today are used across the whole industry. There are now between 100 and 300 different building adhesives available on the...

Seed collection and preparation

Hardwoods such as ash and beech possess hardy seeds which can be stored for considerable periods others give more difficulty. In Britain, trees of oaks (Quercus robur and Q. petraea), sweet chestnut Castanea sativa, horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum and sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus are very frequently grown from seed. All have extremely perishable fruits that are shed at high

Untreated Timber Claddings

The most relevant justification for painting a house is aesthetic. Exceptions are internal surfaces such as floors, mouldings and other details where treatment with oils and waxes will ease cleaning and reduce wear. Colour can also be used to lighten interiors and reduce the need for artificial lighting. Of importance here is wood panelling which, with the exception of aspen, lime and the sapwood of ash, will darken with time. Special paints are used for protection against rust, as flame retardants, as internal vapour barriers, to protect against radon emissions from radioactive building materials, to prevent emissions of volatile formaldehyde from chipboard, etc. Dispersion paint contains particles so small that they are kept suspended in water - this is known as a 'colloidal solution'. Emulsion paint is a dispersion paint consisting of finely divided oil made soluble in water by adding an emulsifying agent, usually a protein. Lazure is paint with less pigment, used when the...

Effects of other factors in breeding areas

Other evidence points to events in breeding areas (as opposed to wintering areas) as being a major cause of population fluctuations in some Neotropical migrants. For many years, some migrant warblers have undergone long-term changes in breeding densities in association with changes in caterpillar abundance. Most outbreaks of defoliating caterpillars in eastern North American hardwood forests are sporadic, occurring in one location in one year and somewhere else the next. The probability that any particular stand will experience an outbreak in any given year is low. Every now and then, however, one caterpillar species of boreal regions, the Spruce Budworm Choristoneura fumiferana, increases over a period of years to reach plague proportions over wide areas, causing extensive defoliation. Several migrant bird species show strong numerical responses to this insect, including the Bay-breasted Warbler Dendroica castanea, Blackpoll Warbler D. striata, Tennessee Warbler Vermivora peregrina,...

Plantation forests and the strategy of risk

The greatest difficulties arise when genetic variability in a crop is low (as in clonal forestry) since a disease or pest overcoming host resistance can easily sweep through the entire population. The opposite problem is equally damaging where a pest or pathogen has evolved the ability to overcome a wide range of host resistances and can invade populations even with high genetic variability. This is the case with honey fungus Armillaria spp. and the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. Honey fungus is one of the world's most important and voracious root diseases, made up of some 40 species worldwide (not all of which are pathogens) to which very few woody plants are immune (see Section 5.4.2). The gypsy moth is one of North America's most devastating forest pests, introduced from Europe in 1868-9, and able to feed on the foliage of literally hundreds of species of plant. If this moth becomes established in New Zealand it will attack a wide range of hosts including hardwoods, just as...

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