Attract The Opposite Sex With Pheromones

Pheromone Advantage

Pheromone Advantage is a formula that Dr. Virgil Amend has designed and tested rigorously in the real world, designed to ignite passions in women without even knowing why they can't resist you. Dr. Amend is one of the world's leading experts on pheromones, and his research will have a direct affect on your love life with this product. Pheromone Advantage uses a carefully-selected and tested blend of pheromones to arouse feelings of desire on a deep and primal level in the women around you. Your problem will be selected which women you want; this pheromone blend is powerful enough that most women in the area will have a deep sexual attraction to you. Pheromone Advantage is certain to be the most effective thing you have ever done to your love life. Pheromones cannot be detected physically; but you will see the effects without a doubt! All you have to do is apply the solution to your exposed skin, then you're off to the best sex of your life! Read more...

Pheromone Advantage Summary

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Releaser Pheromones Sex pheromones

The term sex pheromone is generally used for compounds that modulate mating or increase the likelihood of sexual interactions between different individuals. Sexual communication via chemicals is probably the most prevalent type of chemical signaling and can be found in nearly all taxonomic groups ranging from bacteria to higher mammals. Due to the overwhelming diversity of mating systems and reproductive strategies among these organisms, compounds that are summarized as sex pheromones can fulfill a multitude of different tasks. Fueled by their potential value in pest management in agriculture and forestry (e.g., pheromone traps), sex pheromones of moth are the most intensively studied group of semiochemicals to date. The first sexual advertisement pheromone identified in 1954 was the bombykol of the silkworm moth Bombyx mori (Table 1), which has been isolated from the abdomens of c. 500 000 females. Due to major advances in analytical instrumentation since then, 377 pheromone...

Chemical Characteristics

The ability of a species to employ a certain chemical channel successfully depends strongly on the biosynthetic equipment of the sender as well as the sensory armamentarium of the receiver. Hence, especially closely related species compete for the limited number of compounds they may produce and or recognize. This is reflected, for example, in the taxonomic distribution of lepidopteran sex pheromones. Here it could be shown that on average, taxa with larger numbers of species use more components per blend than smaller taxa and have relatively fewer different kinds of components per species compared to smaller taxa. Competition for communication channels is avoided by adding additional compounds to a blend or slightly changing different ratios of these chemicals (Figure 2b).

Recruitment pheromones

Caterpillars (e.g., Malacosoma americanum). Even though at the species level trail pheromones do not differ chemically as much as sex pheromones, they tend to be species specific and are usually peculiar to genera or to species groups within genera. The longevity of an odor trail depends strongly on the circumstances. The permanence of foraging trails, for example, is affected by the profitability of a given food source, which in turn is reflected by the fade-out time of the pheromones used for trail marking. Solenopsis fire ants whose insects prey are rapidly depleted lay ephemeral trails that may fade within minutes (Figure 8), whereas termites (Schedorhinotermes lamanianus), for instance, that feed on longer-lasting food sources such as dead vegetation use persistent and nonvolatile pheromones.

Wing Loss and Life History Tradeoffs

This is likely the case in cockroaches, because in many species females produce volatile sex pheromones males use these chemical cues to actively seek mating partners (Gemeno and Schal, 2004). The degree of wing development may affect longevity in both sexes (Kaitala and Hulden, 1990 Roff and Fairbairn, 1991). It may be relevant, then, that among the longest-lived of the known cockroaches are apterous species that burrow in wood or soil (Chapter 3).

Vertical Stratification

Cockroaches appear to sort themselves in the vertical dimension via their differential sensitivity to zones of temperature, humidity, and wind currents (Edney et al., 1978 Appel et al., 1983). Schal (1982) found significant differences in these variables up to a height of 2 m in the tropical forest subcanopy. In one experiment, individually marked E. involucris were blinded, then placed at heights where they usually do not occur all individuals migrated back to their typical perch zone. This stratification along micrometeorological gradients relates to the ascent of warm air and pheromone dispersion at night. Females emit sex pheromones while perching, and temperature inversions carry the pheromones aloft. Males perching higher than females would be able to detect rising pher-omones and locate receptive females. Perching behavior in adults, then, is primarily a mate-finding strategy (Schal, 1982 Schal and Bell, 1986), a conclusion supported by the observations of Gorton (1980). Among...

Detection of informative odor 531 The importance of contrast cues

The positive influence of background odors on the response to chemical cues has been reported for a number of different insect species. Drosophila melanogaster adults responded better to minute changes of carbon dioxide when the background odor included vinegar rather than pure air (Faucher et al. 2006). Similarly, the response of corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera larvae to CO2 was enhanced when the gas was presented in combination with corn volatiles (Hibbard & Bjostad 1988). Background dependent changes in olfactory sensitivity have also been seen in the housefly Musca domestica (Kelling et al. 2002). There are also several examples showing that both the release of, and response to, sex pheromones in herbivorous insects is modified by the presence of host plant volatiles (McNeil & Delisle 1989, Dickens et al. 1993, Landolt & Phillips 1997, Ochieng et al. 2002, Said et al. 2005).

Speciation in Animals

Divergence of host-related populations of crop insect pests is probably not unusual. In France, for example, the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) has evolved host races on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), a wild plant, and maize (Zea mays), a crop plant native to the Americas (Martel et al. 2003). The frequency of interbreeding between the two forms appears to be less than 1 . Several factors apparently contribute to the strong genetic isolation of the two forms (Thomas et al. 2003). Populations on mugwort complete their larval development and emerge about 10 days earlier than those on maize, so the chances of mating between the two forms are greatly reduced. Sex pheromones produced by the two races also differ, reinforcing the tendency for mating of individuals of the same race. Selection for populations on maize also appears to be related to an enemy-free environment. A parasitoid wasp usually kills more than 50 of corn borer larvae overwintering on mugwort but does not attack...

Geographical modes of pollinatordriven speciation

One special case that may involve sympatric speciation deserves consideration, namely, sexual deception in orchids (Schiestl and Ayasse 2002 Schiestl et al. 2003 Mant et al. 2005). In these orchids, which attract male Hymenoptera chiefly by imitating the sex pheromones of female insects, a mutant with a novel fragrance could attract a different and non-overlapping set of pollinators

Attraction

Chemical, visual, and acoustic signaling are used to attract potential mates. Attraction of mates can be accomplished by either sex in Coleoptera, but only females of Lepidoptera release sex pheromones and only males of Orthoptera stridulate. Sex pheromones greatly improve the efficiency with which insects find potential mates over long distances in heterogeneous environments (Card 1996, Law and Regnier 1971, Mustaparta 1984). The particular blend of compounds and their enantiomers, as well as the time of calling, varies considerably among species. These mechanisms represent the first step in maintaining reproductive isolation. For example, among tortricids in eastern North America, Archips mor-tuanus uses a 90 10 blend of (Z)-11- and (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, A. argy-rospilus uses a 60 40 blend, and A. cervasivoranus uses a 30 70 blend. A related species, Argyrotaenia velutinana also uses a 90 10 blend but is repelled by (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate that is incorporated by A....

Allomones

Mastophora

Allomones can also be signals, which are normally involved in intraspecific communication (i.e., phero-mones), yet are exploited by a heterospecific sender to its own advantage. An example for an aggressive chemical mimicry is the hunting strategy of the bolas spider (Mastophora spp.) (Figure 11a). The adult female emits chemical attractants that mimic the sex pheromones of its moth prey, thereby exploiting the inherent mate-finding behavior of its victims, which are male moths. The hunting spider produces a specialized web, the so-called bolas, which is held by one ofthe forelegs and consists ofa sticky ball attached to a small thread. When the prey approaches the lurking spider within striking distance, the sticky ball is swung at the moth to catch it.

Mate Finding

Most cockroaches that have been studied rely on chemical and tactile cues to find their mates in the dark (Roth and Willis, 1952a). In many cases volatile sex pheromones mediate the initial orientation these have been demonstrated in 16 cockroach species in three families. The pheromones are most commonly female generated and function at a variety of distances, up to 2 m or more, depending on the species (Gemeno and Schal, 2004). Females in the process of releasing pheromone (calling) often assume a characteristic posture (Fig. 6.1) they raise the wings (if they have them), lower the abdomen, and open the terminal abdominal segments to expose the genital vestibulum (Hales and Breed, 1983 Gemeno et al., 2003). In some species the initial roles are reversed, with males assuming a characteristic stance while luring females (Roth and Dateo, 1966 Sreng, 1979a). A calling male may maintain the posture for 2 or more hr, with many short interruptions (Sirugue et al., 1992). Based on the...

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