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Revive Her Drive

Be ready to go through a complete transformation in the way that you think and feel about having sex with your wife or girlfriend! Revive Her Drive is like a Cheat Sheet to woo your woman the way she secretly wants you to, and simply cant express. The solution is based on female-friendly, easy-to-learn strategies that she will love! How nice will that moment be when shes lying in your arms, happy and spent, and she actually Thanks You for helping her to rediscover her sensual self? Shell be grateful that you, Her Man, now that you have the vision and skill to guide her into new, electrifying experiences even if she fights you or resists you now. Women Are sensual creatures. We women want pleasure, intimacy, connection, sensation as much as you do! Ill prove this to you. Once you know how to captivate her, you can turn her into a pleasure-seeking device within 24 hours. Getting that kind of responsiveness is the feedback you need to feel confident this program is working. Discover how Robert rekindled his relationship with Lauren using the tools within Revive Her Drive by watching this short presentation that lays out the whole strategy youll use to transform your intimate life into one of passion, surrender and fantasies-come-true. Read more...

Revive Her Drive Summary


4.8 stars out of 57 votes

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Author: Tim and Susan Bratton
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My Revive Her Drive Review

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Impact of injection drug use and sexual activity

Since it was recognized in late 1982 that blood transfusions could transmit HIV, there has been increased international attention on the link between sexual activity, injecting illicit drugs, and blood safety. Epidemics related to high-risk sexual activity, such as sex work and trading sex for drugs, are discussed in Chapter 2, and epidemics related to intravenous drug use are discussed in Chapter 3. Both types of behavior are known to impact the safety of the blood supply, especially when donors are paid. Blood is an ideal medium for harboring, growing, and transmitting the agents that are spread by these behaviors, such as HIV, the hepatitis B and C viruses, HTLV CMV and others. To combat this problem, the Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies has called for expanded drug abuse prevention, harm reduction, and public education. They believe that National Societies, with their unique combination of volunteer support and community membership alongside their status as...

Kenneth H Mayer and HF Pizer

This book was conceived to expand upon previous efforts to explore the social ecology of infectious diseases, which we define as the scientific study of the ways by which human activities enable microbes to disseminate and evolve, creating favorable conditions for the diverse manifestations of communicable diseases. Despite advances in living standards, public health, and medical technologies (including antimicrobial drugs and vaccines), infectious and parasitic diseases cause about a third of deaths worldwide and are the second leading cause of mortality and disability (Fauci, 2001). The rapidity by which changes in human behavior can result in severe epidemics is well illustrated by HIV, the cause of AIDS, which is spread primarily by sexual activity and injecting drugs using unsterile equipment. But AIDS is only one of multiple microbial threats, and other human activities can cause devastating infectious epidemics. The goal of this text is to analyze the wide range of activities...

Travelers risk behavior

During travel and exploration of regions far from home, individuals may engage in risky activities that can lead to potential exposure to pathogens in blood and body fluids, including HIV, hepatitis C, hepatitis B, CMV HTLV-1, and other sexually transmitted infections. Some travelers choose their destinations for sex tourism, and many engage in casual sex with new partners (Marrazzo, 2005). A survey of 9000 European travelers regarding their potential exposure to hepatitis B through sex or other contacts found 6.6-11.2 percent to be at high risk (with 24.4 percent vaccinated), 60.8-75.8 percent had potential risk (with 19.2 percent vaccinated), and only 33.4 percent had no identifiable risk of exposure (Zuckerman and Steffen, 2000). Among Canadian travelers surveyed, 15 percent had potential exposure to blood and body fluids 9 percent had sexual intercourse with a new partner, 5 percent shared implements such as a razor or toothbrush, 3.2 percent had an injection for medical...

Sociosexual Behavior

We found differences in sociosexual activity between groups. The frequency of sociosexual behavior was remarkably low at Planckendael in 1999, with only 0.13 interactions per hour, a value that lies very close to the value given by de Waal (1998, 2001) for common chimpanzees. In the other bonobo groups, sexual activity was lower than, but close to those observed among the adult group at San Diego (Fig. 1.1). There is a strong correlation for female individual age to sociosexual activity per hour (Spearman rank rs -0.63 N 15, p 0.01). For males the correlation is slightly weaker but still significant (rs -0.55 N 14 p 0.04, Fig. 1.2). Thus the relatively low frequencies of sexual interactions at Planckendael-1 and Planckendael-2 could be attributed to the presence of several older females, which were less sexually active, though regularly cycling.

Population Genetics for Small Populations

However, the Hardy-Weinberg law only applies to the so-called ideal populations. And these ideal populations have several preconditions which in reality can rarely be met they have to be infinitely large, there has to be panmixia (i.e., every member of one sex can mate with every member of the other sex with the same probability), and there must not be any selection. In most populations,

David D Celentano Frangiscos Sifakis Vivian Go and Wendy Davis

I won't stand in your bedroom and shake my finger under your nose and say, Now, don't do that, you 're going to catch something, but I'm telling you here, now, that's how we think you 're catching it. It doesn't go through the air. You can't cough it into somebody's face. You can't get it from a telephone or from shaking hands. But you can get it sexually, and if you can't stop this extreme sexual activity, at least cut it down so your Russian roulette gun will have two bullets instead of six bullets in the chamber. Because right now, the way you 're going, you've got six bullets in the chamber. To illuminate the dynamics of the social ecology of STI, including HIV AIDS, this chapter reviews three fundamental sociocultural movements which have been linked to how and when individuals find sexual partners. First, we look at a series of social changes in the second half of the last century, and evaluate the impact they had on sexual behaviors and STI in the US. These include the growth...

Population movements and STI segregation

Another broad social trend of the second half of the twentieth century had a unique influence on the transmission of STI in the Black population. During World War II, a need for labor for the production of war material encouraged a major migration of Blacks from the rural, agrarian South to factories in the North. In subsequent decades this migration intensified, with significant shifts in the demographics of large cities in the East and Mid-West - notably Chicago and Detroit. One consequence of this influx was an intensification of racial segregation. As the National Advisory Committee on Civil Disorders stated in their report to President Lyndon Johnson, Our nation is moving toward two societies, one Black, one White - separate and unequal (US National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, 1968). Differences in socioeconomic status, political power, access to medical care, and preventive health services (LaVeist, 2002), along with racial differences in sexual partner preferences,...

Adolescents and premarital sex

In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Kinsey and colleagues found that 71 percent of males and 33 percent of females had experienced premarital intercourse by the age of 25 (Kinsey et al., 1953, 2006). Beginning in the late 1960s, the proportion of teenage women who had ever had sexual intercourse increased substantially through 1988 (Hofferth et al, 1987 Forrest and Singh, 1990 CDC, 1991). A national survey of never-married women aged 15-19 years in the US in 1971 found that 28 percent had experienced sexual intercourse (Kantner and Zelnick, 1972). A second national survey conducted in 1976 revealed that the proportion of individuals in this same group had increased to 34.9 percent (Zelnick and Kanter, 1977). By 1982, 47.1 percent of teenage women had ever had sex by 1988, 53.2 percent of teenage women were reporting ever having had sex (Forrest and Singh, 1990). Data since 1988, however, suggest that this historical trend has stopped and perhaps reversed (Abma and Sonenstein, 2001 CDC,...

Stonewall and the emergence of the sexual revolution among gay men

Dramatic changes in gay lifestyles mirrored this dramatic progress in gay rights. As the locations where gay men had historically gathered, including gay bathhouses, gay bars, sex clubs, and adult bookshops, were no longer targeted by police, the number of these establishments grew. Gay bathhouses, in particular, encouraged a sense of gay community and supported an active gay lifestyle. In the 1970s, the proliferation of bathhouses gave gay men easy access to other gay men interested in sex. The bathhouse environment facilitated sexual activity with multiple partners, and made anonymous sex possible. Increases in the number of sexual partners and anonymous partners in the 1970s were linked to increases in reports of STI among gay men (Fichtner et al., 1983 Ostrow and Altman, 1983). Higher rates of STI in gay men were reported as compared with heterosexual men (Judson et al., 1980), and in gay men tested at bathhouses as compared with gay men tested in gay health clinics (Carlson et...

The emergence of Hivaids

In March of 1983, the CDC shared the results of their epidemiologic investigations into AIDS, observing that among homosexual men those with multiple sexual partners appeared to be at greater risk of contracting the disease, and that the period between exposure and the manifestation of illness could be as long as two years (CDC, 1983). These findings led the CDC to recommend that individuals avoid sexual contact with persons known or suspected to have AIDS. A New York Times article published in February explained that the only protection against AIDS that clinicians could offer their homosexual patients was behavior change. In particular, it was suggested that homosexual men practice monogamy and, ideally, abstain from anal intercourse altogether (Henig, 1983). Many gay men balked at these recommendations, feeling that they undermined a sexual freedom so recently gained (Shilts, 1987). Concern about the transmission of AIDS led inevitably to concerns about gay bathhouses. As early as...

Sexual behaviors in the gay 90s and beyond

By the late 1980s, the gay community's ability to institute widespread behavioral change was well documented (Stall et al., 1988), and rates of AIDS infection among homosexual men were slowly dropping (CDC, 1990). In the midst of this success, however, data were beginning to surface that suggested that some MSM were struggling to maintain safe-sex behavior, and some had never conformed to the new norms (Stall et al., 2000). Younger men and men who did not have a close friend or lover with AIDS were more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking behavior (Ekstrand and Coates, 1990), as were men of racial and ethnic minorities (Stall et al., 2000). Men who used drugs in conjunction with sexual activity were also more likely to engage in sexual risk behavior (Ostrow et al., 1990). Some studies also indicated that feeling a part of a gay community (Joseph et al., 1991) and community expectations (Kelly et al., 1992) were positively associated with risk-reduction behavior. Stop AIDS, the San...

A new medium for prevention and research

Although the extraordinary capacity of the Internet has yet to be fully tapped for this purpose, fledgling efforts have demonstrated its potential. It has been used for partner notification and the distribution of education, prevention, and health information. In 1999 in San Francisco and in 2003 in Los Angeles, public health officials notified users of gay chat rooms and sexual contacts of known syphilis cases of the potential for syphilis exposure, and urged them to seek medical care (Klausner et al, 2000 CDC, 2004). In the Netherlands, MSM recruited in chat rooms indicated that they would utilize a website which posted HIV STI-prevention information, and provided question-and-answer, e-mail and live-chat forum services devoted to safe-sex topics (Hospers et al., 2002). MSM in the UK also reported positive attitudes toward receiving health information online and interacting live with public health experts (Chiasson et al., 2005). Structured HIV-prevention interventions need to...

Sex and drug interactions

Female drug users are found in almost all countries, and while the number of female users appears to be increasing, the majority are male, young, and sexually active (Deany, 2000 Reid and Costigan, 2002). Thus men especially serve as a vehicle for HIV spread, not only through unsafe injection practices but also by being a key bridge population for sexual transmission. High-risk sexual behaviors (e.g. multiple sexual partners and sex without a condom) tend to go hand-inhand with more frequent and risky drug use (UNDP, 1999). In many countries, HIV epidemics among injection drug users have been followed by epidemics via sexual transmission among non-injecting populations. Furthermore, in some cases sexual transmission from users to non-injecting partners has become the dominant mode of heterosexual transmission (des Jarlais et al., 1992 Panda et al., 1998). In this regard, drug use is like any other gendered phenomenon. Women are doubly vulnerable, through their own drug use but more...

Implications of Selfcompatibility for the Invasion

The ability to self is advantageous for successful colonization following long-distance dispersal of a single propagule, because there is no need to wait for a sexual partner (Baker's law Baker, 1955). Once a plant has successfully established, selfing transmits proved genes of a plant, which was able to survive at that site. Nevertheless, theoretical models suggest that an optimal mating system for a sexually reproducing invader in a heterogeneous landscape is to be able to modify selfing rates according to local conditions. In early stages of invasions, when populations are small, plants should self to maximize fertility. Later, when populations are large and pollinators and or mates are not limiting, outcrossing is more beneficial because it generates increased genetic polymorphism (Pannell and Barrett, 1998 Rejmanek et al., 2005).

Malemale interactions during musth

The anecdotal observations that male elephants become more aggressive during musth have been quantified at Amboseli by Joyce Poole. She found that the median frequency of agonistic interactions by musth bulls was 7.5 hour compared to 3.5 hour by nonmusth, sexually active bulls. Just as dominance rank in nonmusth bulls is decided by body size, the larger bulls also won most of the agonistic interactions of a pair of musth bulls. Of 75 pairs of such contests observed between musth bulls, the larger bull emerged dominant in 93 of cases. However, in aggressive contests between a musth bull and a nonmusth bull, the winner was determined not by body size, but by musth. Thus, in 49

Physiological and biochemical correlates of musth

In wild elephants, it would be an extremely demanding task to collect blood from bulls. Joyce Poole thus hit on an ingenious method of measuring testosterone in the urine of bulls. Soon after a bull urinated, she drove it away and quickly aspirated the urine from the ground with a syringe. The collected urine was filtered and frozen before being sent to a laboratory for analysis. As expected, bulls that were sexually active (but not in musth), in the premusth stage, or in regular musth generally had higher urinary testosterone levels than those not in musth and sexually inactive. B Sexually active, not in musth C Mature, sexually active, not in musth

Mate guarding and male reproductive success

Musth, of course, is crucial to reproductive success in male elephants. Why should this be necessary If there are two sexually active bulls of similar size and age with different musth status, why should the musth bull have a mating advantage over the nonmusth bull What has been the adaptive significance of musth in the course of evolution

The social ecology of blood safety

Similar human activities are likely to underpin their entry into and transmission along the medical blood supply. They include intravenous drug use with needle-sharing, high-risk or multiple partner sexual activity, exposure to insect vectors, travel, population migration, and medical negligence, and each may be influenced by economic, political, and social conditions. These subjects are discussed elsewhere in this volume, so this chapter will focus on their specific impact on blood safety.

One Male Multiple Copulations

Typically, males and females pair up during summer, overwinter together, and produce their sole set of offspring the following summer. Although sperm from a single copulation are presumably sufficient to fertilize these eggs (average of 73), pairs mate repeatedly over the course of their association. There is evidence of sexual activity the year before reproduction, immediately prior to oviposition, during the oviposition period, after the hatch of their oothecae, and 1 yr after the hatch of their single brood (Nalepa, 1988a). Prior to oviposition, repeated copulation may function as paternity assurance or perhaps nutrient transfer, but mating after the eggs are laid is more difficult to explain. Rodriguez-Girones and En-quist (2001) note that mating frequency is particularly high in species where males associate with females and assist them in parental duties. Superfluous copulations evolve in these pairs because females attempt to sequester male assistance and males are deprived of...

HIVs Effect on Public Service

HIV AIDS will induce a gradual degradation of the quality of services provided by the bureaucracy. Traditionally, in developing countries like Zimbabwe, educated elites have chosen careers initially in public service. Such employees are often the most highly educated in underdeveloped societies, many having received graduate education from European or American universities. Moreover, these professionals, because of their high incomes, high status in society, and consequently high levels of sexual activity, were earlier victims of HIV than the general population.47 HIV AIDS will erode the human capital of Zimbabwe's professional civil service. Costly losses in professional fields (civil engineering, medicine and health care, education, financial administration, developmental planning) are of particular concern.

Spatiotemporal Variability of Habitat Suitability and Quality Leads to Habitat Selection

In heterogeneous environments, natural selection will favor individuals capable of occupying the most favorable areas for activities linked to fitness, that is, survival and reproduction. Spatial and temporal environmental heterogeneity (Figure 2) thus leads to selective pressures favoring behaviors that allow individuals to select high-quality habitats or patches, that is, the evolution of individual strategies of habitat choice, for any activity considered (e.g., foraging for food, searching for a sexual partner, finding shelter from predators, breeding).

Reduction and Loss of Genitalic Structures

The genital phallomeres of some blaberid cockroaches are lightly sclerotized, considerably reduced, or in some cases, altogether absent. The Panchlorinae are characterized by the absence of a genital hook, and if the remaining two phallomeres are present, they are markedly reduced (Roth, 1971b). Likewise, one or more phallomeres may be reduced or absent in many Panesthiinae (including Geoscapheini) (Fig. 6.11D) (Roth, 1977). Macro-panesthia rhinoceros and M. heppleorum males completely lack a genital hook, and sclerites L1 and L2d are also missing. Some of the Australian soil-burrowing cockroaches exhibit intraspecific variation in the reduction of phallomeres (Walker and Rose, 1998). The occurrence of poorly developed male genitalia in cockroaches corresponds very well with copulatory behavior. A reduced or absent genital hook is strong evidence of type III mating behavior, that is, the male backs into the female to initiate mating (Roth, 1971b, 1977). Additional correlates of...

Vaccine development at the turn of the twentyfirst century

The development of vaccines which protect against infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 can prevent cervical cancers associated with chronic infection by these serotypes. These vaccines have the potential to reduce the most common cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide. However, to realize the enormous promise of these new vaccines, two formidable challenges must be overcome adolescent girls must be immunized prior to the onset of sexual activity, and this vaccine must be made widely available throughout the world.

Reproduction in Aquatic Plants

Artificial pollination is usually necessary in order to ensure fertilization and viable seeds from a self-sterile plant. Pollen from a flower on one plant (never one produced as a cutting or other vegetative offspring of the other plant) is carried by a fine brush or other tool to a flower on another plant. This necessitates that ripe pollen be present on two different plants at the same time, making artificial pollination far from easy. In the cryptocorynes, for example, the sexual questions are so complicated that they are often the topic of serious scientific research.

Factors affecting microparasite population biology

Finally, the frequency and severity of disease outbreaks are also highly dependent upon the behavior of the host population. As discussed below, many diseases such as measles and influenza are dependent upon the size and density of the host population. Large and dense host populations lead to a high disease transmission rate. Public health measures such as isolation of infected individuals, the treatment of water and sewage wastes, and pasteurization of milk have been instrumental in curbing the spread of many diseases. Behavioral changes related to sexual activity are also essential in limiting the spread of other classes of disease.

Assessing immune function across different physiological states

As discussed above (sections and 11.3), researchers should be sensitive to the underlying physiology of the immune system and interconnected physiological systems when they design and interpret immune assays. Knowledge of the physiological details will help experimenters to determine the suite of immune measures they need to test their hypotheses. Single measures of immune function are known to give a poor overview of immune system health (Luster et al., 1993 Keil et al., 2001). For example, sexually active male Drosophila melanogaster remove non-pathogenic bacteria from their bodies more slowly than do males that lack mating opportunities (McKean and Nunney, 2001). McKean and Nunney (2001) concluded from these results that there is a negative trade-off between male sexual behaviour and disease resistance. However, Corby-Harris et al. (2007) found that the ability to clear bacteria from the haemolymph does not correlate with the ability to survive a bacterial challenge in D....

Epidemiologic settings

The epidemiologic settings in which network descriptions have the longest history of use involve sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as gonorrhea or the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).8-14 Here there are natural, well-defined, network structures (sexual partnership networks) which have long been exploited by public health bodies in their attempts to track and control outbreaks of STIs. Network models have more recently been employed to describe the spread of a wider range of infections such as measles, SARS or foot and mouth disease (FMD).15-18 Increased interest in bioterrorism has also spurred much research, with the spread of smallpox coming under particular scrutiny.19'20 The contrast between networks describing sexual partnerships and more general social contact networks is particularly pronounced. It is instructive to look at some of these differences as they highlight many important aspects of network structure. The number of sexual partnerships is dwarfed by the...

Impact of heterogeneity

The impact of heterogeneity has long been recognized in the setting of sexually transmitted infections. Epidemiologists had realized that certain sections of the community, for instance highly sexually active individuals such as sex workers, were at much greater risk of infection than the general population. Such core groups are responsible for a large fraction of the cases and transmission events.1'40 The prevalence of infection is high within the core group, but low in the general population. In many cases the infection could not spread or persist without the core group the heterogeneity in the population leads to the basic reproductive number being greater than one. This effect is often given as an explanation of why many infections are able persist at low levels in a population.

Diurnal and Seasonal Rhythms in Acoustic Activity Unaccountable Behaviour

I have recorded only one truly nocturnal species of Cicadidae, Kanakia gigas Blrd (Figure 25.52a DVD), but it is doubtless not the only nocturnal cicada there is another record of a Midnight Cicada from Malaysia, possibly some large Pomponia (Gogala and Riede, 1995). K. gigas is active a good hour after dark. In view of the morphology of its eyes and antennae it is not like a nocturnal insect. Apparently it can use the weak lunar or stellar light. After calling its rather stiffening signal, a brief mooing repeated two or three times (Figure 25.52b DVD), it flies off to settle at some distance and call again. This is behaviour not uncommon in large Asian cicadas such as various crepuscular Pomponia, diurnal, spectacular black-winged Tosena and Formotosena montivaga that cling to a tree trunk when calling (Figure 25.53a and b DVD). Although some cicada females have been shown to locate a calling male during flight (Doolan and Young, 1989 Moore et al., 1993 Daws et...

Heterogeneities and dynamical complexities

Several modeling approaches have been applied to capture heterogeneity in patterns of social contact, focusing primarily on the spread of contagious infections in human populations. One strategy is to group individuals into classes (e.g. social status, kinship, or sexual activity) and describe contacts among classes in terms of a mixing matrix, where the entries in each of the cells describe the frequency distribution of contacts per unit time (Blower and McLean 1991). The most important insight gained from these models is that the pattern of contacts between different activity classes has a major impact on parasite spread (Jacquez et al. 1988). Specifically, a high degree of mixing within an activity class results in a more rapid initial spread but a lower population-wide prevalence, as compared to a higher degree of mixing among activity classes. Despite their importance in human epidemiology, mixing matrices have not been applied widely to animal social and mating systems because...

Releaser Pheromones Sex pheromones

The most common principle of sex pheromone action is to call the attention of the respective other gender and to attract potential mating partners from the distance. After entering the so-called active space, which is the zone where the pheromone concentration exceeds the detection threshold of the receiver, mobile organisms or those with mobile gametes orient toward the source of the pheromone, thereby moving up the chemical gradient (i.e., chemotaxis), whereas sessile or immotile organisms start to grow toward the sexual partner (i.e., chemotropism).

Gas exchange and metabolic rate during activity

Flight is not the only reason for elevated metabolic rates. Other forms of locomotion, including both pedestrian locomotion and swimming are responsible for increases in metabolic rate, as are calling (Lighton 1987 Reinhold 1999), sexual activity (Giesel et al. 1989 Woods and Stevenson 1996), thermoregulation (both for flight and in the absence of flight), colony homeostasis (Heinrich 1993), and feeding. For example, Megasoma elephas (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) responds to reduced ambient temperatures by endothermic heat production, in the absence of any form of activity (Fig. 3.15) (Morgan and Bartholomew 1982), while in another group of scarabaeids, the winter active rain beetles, males maintain elevated thoracic temperatures and metabolic rates while searching for females (Morgan 1987). In the leaf-cutting ant, Atta sexdens, leaf-cutting activity results in high metabolic rates with factorial aerobic scopes of


The most impressive differences between groups are in the rates of sociosexual interactions, most notably at Planckendael, where the frequency of these interactions was much lower than previously reported for bonobos (de Waal 1998, 2001). The age composition of the group may determine the frequency of sexual interactions, because older individuals show a significant decline in sexual activity. There is no consistent pattern regarding male mating success in relation to dominance. The highest-ranking

Social trends

The Women's Liberation Movement challenged American ideology about female sexuality. A new literature emerged representing women's perspectives in sexual relationships books such as the Joy of Sex (Comfort, 1972) focused on both men's and women's roles in the quest for better lovemaking, and became best sellers. As Gillmore and colleagues described, The pressure on men to become competent lovers, for women to be orgasmic and assertive in their sexual desires changed the meaning and experience of sex for both men and women (Gillmore et al., 1999). This revised ideology was accompanied by increasingly permissive attitudes about sex (Reiss, 1960 Glenn and Weaver, 1979). The recognition of women as sexually independent actors represented a new phase in American sexuality.

Basic Processes

Different types of biological rhythmicity may affect the regulation of one or more physiological or behavioral variables. Estrous rhythmicity in rodents, for example, has been shown to affect at least hormonal secretion, behavioral sexual receptivity, the pattern of vaginal discharges, and the amount and temporal organization of locomotor activity. Circadian rhythmicity has been shown to affect locomotor activity, eating and drinking, excretion, learning capability, heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, hormone secretion, sexual activity, parturition, suicide, susceptibility to heart attack, and many other variables. It is still unclear which of these multiple rhythmic variables are controlled directly by the circadian pacemaker and which are simply caused (masked) by the rhythmicity of variables controlled by the pacemaker. It has been demonstrated that the circadian rhythm of body temperature is not caused by the rhythm of locomotor activity, whereas the rhythm of urea...

Haploid chromosomes

When discussing the inheritance of nuclear and organelle markers we usually refer to nuclear genes as being inherited biparentally following sexual reproduction. For the most part this is true, but sex chromosomes (chromosomes that have a role in the determination of sex) provide an exception to this rule. Not all species have sex chromosomes, for example crocodiles and many turtles and lizards follow

MSM and the Internet

Or heterosexual, and are more likely to report sex with women (Ross et al., 2000 Rhodes et al., 2002 Weatherburn et al., 2003). Accessing online sex environments has been associated with a greater likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behaviors among MSM. MSM who seek sex partners online have been shown to have more casual sexual partners (Kim et al., 2001 Benotsch et al., 2002), report higher rates of unprotected sex (Kim et al., 2001 Benotsch et al., 2002 Hospers et al., 2002), and report sex with an HIV-positive individual (Kim et al., 2001) than their counterparts who seek sexual partners offline. Furthermore, use of recreational drugs, such as MDMA (ecstasy), nitrites (poppers), methamphetamines, and sexual-performance enhancing medications (e.g. Viagra) is reported at significantly higher proportions by MSM who seek sex partners online (Benotsch et al., 2002 Mettey et al., 2003 Hirshfeld et al., 2004 Taylor et al., 2004). Meeting sexual partners online has also been associated...

Sexual Differences

Current evidence suggests that male foraging behavior and food choice differs from that of females generally, male cockroaches feed less and on fewer food types. In the Costa Rican rainforest male cockroaches always have less food in their guts than do females after the usual nightly foraging period (WJB, unpubl. data). This is particularly true for seven species of blattellids, in which 50-100 of males had empty guts. In more than 30 male Latiblattella sp. examined, none had any food in the gut. In contrast, males of four species of blaberids often had medium to full guts, although females had still fuller guts. This difference may be due to the active mate searching required of blattellid males as compared to blaberids. Male cockroaches tend to have narrower diets than females (Table 4.2), which may relate to the nutrients required for oogenesis. A similar pattern was obvious in D. punctata in Hawaii 44 of females had guts filled to capacity, whereas male guts were never full....


The usual mode of transmission for this disease is direct contact with an infective lesion during sexual activity (although a pregnant woman may also infect her fetus). The spirochete enters the new host through small breaks in the skin, multiplies at the site, and forms a sore known as a chancre. This primary stage is highly infective but heals on its own. However, by this time the bacteria have spread to other areas throughout the body, causing secondary lesions that are also infective. Eventually, sometimes after 20 or more years, the disease may enter a tertiary stage that can affect the heart or brain, and without treatment may be fatal almost 10 of the time.


A comparison of 2001 Interpol crime statistics (the latest available) with those in 1995 exemplifies the degradation that has occurred in Zimbabwe. The population grew 15.5 percent between 1995 and 2001. One might anticipate comparable boosts in crime tied to the growth rate. The incidence of crime grew substantially during this period, as reported murders increased by 68.7 percent during this period, sexual assaults by 26.9 percent, and the incidence of rape by 58.5 percent. Some of this increase might well be tied to the mistaken regional belief that a man can rid himself of HIV by having sexual intercourse with a virgin. The incidence of rape of young girls has soared because of this myth in some instances, females 5 years old and even younger have been victimized. Other notable increases in criminal activity also occurred during this period include robbery and violent theft went up 89.8 percent, auto theft 49.1 percent, and aggravated theft 37 percent.44 These dramatic increases...


Gonorrhea, which now is a much more common disease (250 million cases a year worldwide, 400,000 in the United States) than syphilis, is a bacterial disease caused by the gram-negative diplococci (spherical cells in pairs), Neisseria gonorrhea. It mainly affects the urethra, and in women also the reproductive organs pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) , leading potentially to sterility. It is most often spread through contact with the mucous membranes of an infected person during sexual activity, although a newborn may also acquire it (usually, as an eye infection) from an infected mother during birth.

Sex ratio conflicts

Workers may control sex ratios in a colony either by killing male larvae or by controlling the proportion of females that develop into reproductive adults (potential queens) versus sterile workers. Since adult males and females can be easily identified in social insect colonies, their sex ratios can be obtained without the aid of molecular markers, but the mechanisms of sex ratio manipulation cannot be understood fully without using molecular data to compare primary and secondary sex ratios. In a study of the ant Leptothorax acervorum, researchers used microsatellite markers to genotype eggs, and from these data they learned that the sex ratio did not change between eggs and adults. They therefore concluded that workers were obtaining their optimal sex ratio by manipulating the proportion of females that developed into sterile workers and not by killing male larvae (Hammond, Bruford and Bourke, 2002). The situation is different in fire ants (Solenopsis invicta), which often have sex...


A more detailed look at the underlying parameters that regulate the abundance of particular invertebrate species depends on understanding the biology of the species. For example, a review of variations in life history strategies of microarthropods (Siepel, 1994) provides an indication of the many factors that must be accounted for when considering invertebrates. The review identifies four categories that are considered separately (i) type of reproduction mechanism (ii) factors that control development (iii) synchronization with the environment and (iv) effectiveness of the dispersal mode. These are summarized briefly below from Siepel (1994). The types of reproduction are diverse, especially in microarthropods. Parthenogenesis is common and varied in mechanism (arrhenotoky, thalytoky and amphitoky). Arrhenotoky are cases where the unfertilized haploid eggs become male, while the fertilized diploid eggs become the females in the population. This mechanism does not occur in Oribatida...

Historical Overview

Tape recorders yet at that time, he tried to describe the sounds in different ways (e.g. on music paper according to tuning fork analyses). He could make the animals' signals audible to himself by putting one or several animals into a little glass tube with some plant parts and holding the open tube end to his ear. He did not rear the animals but used only outdoor materials freshly caught, never knowing whether the females had already been copulated or not. His rather small cages presumably did not provide sufficient space for normal copulation behaviour, particularly concerning the foreplay. Therefore his experiments to prove the role of those signals were not conclusive, although he could discern duet-calling between males and females of Doratura stylata (Boh.), as well as search actions by the male up to attempted copulation (Ossiannilsson, 1953). He did, however, prove an ability of producing acoustic signals in Auchenorrhyncha, which at that time was entirely unknown.


Garnett, Measuring sexual partner networks for transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, J. R. Stat. Soc. A. 161, 227-38, (1998). 11. A. C. Ghani, C. A. Donnelly, and G. P. Garnett, Sampling biases and missing data in explorations of sexual partner networks for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, Stat. Med. 17, 2079-97, (1998). 12. N. M. Ferguson and G. P. Garnett, More realistic models of sexually transmitted disease transmission dynamics -sexual partnership networks, pair models, and moment closure, Sex. Trans. Dis. 27, 600-9, (2000). 13. A. C. Ghani and G. P. Garnett, Risks of acquiring and transmitting sexually transmitted diseases in sexual partner networks, Sex. Trans. Dis. 27, 579-87, (2000).

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