How to start a conversation in English
Us work out the logic of our ideas before we even begin to design or execute an experiment. Much effort has been spent by myself and others on collecting data that in the end bears no relationship to the hypothesis being tested. Sometimes, this is fine because it helps us put the experiment in a larger context. It also allows us to serendipi-tously make connections between processes that might otherwise not have been made. But, since it also takes time and effort to collect data which may turn out to be unnecessary, we may also miss collecting data that is essential. Every modeler has had the experience of an experimentalist friend showing up with a boatload of hard-won data and asking for help to construct a model, only to have to say upon examining the data that much of it is not relevant to the experimenter's own statement of their hypothesis or that some key data required to construct a model of the hypothesis was not collected. In the latter case, the modeler then says that we...
Daughter Daddy, are these conversations serious D I mean. the conversations are serious for me, but if you are only playing a game. F Look, I scored a sort of debating point just now by forcing you to admit that you don't want to cheat and then I tied onto that admission the conclusion that therefore the conversations are not serious for you either. Was that a sort of cheating F Wait a minute. This is difficult to say. First of all I think that we get somewhere with these conversations. I enjoy them very much and I think you do. But also, apart from that, I think that we get some ideas straight and I think that the muddles help. I mean that if we both spoke logically all the time, we would never get anywhere. We would only parrot all the old cliches that everybody has repeated for hundreds of years. F You brought up two questions. And really there are a lot more. We started from the question about these conversations are they serious Or are they a sort of game And you felt hurt that I...
The Ricker recruitment function is widely used in population biology. Many years ago, Bob Costantino indicated in conversation to me that he thought the original ideas came from R. N. Chapman, an insect ecolo-gist, who argued much in the same way that I did concerning the form of the recruitment function. Citation to Chapman's work (one example is Chapman (1928)) can be found in Costantino and Desharnais (1991), which itself is a rich and informative volume on flour beetles (Tnbolium spp.). An obituary of Ricker (Beamish 2002), who died in 2001 at age 93, noted that he began as an entomologist and that it was only on a postdoctoral tour of Europe that he became professionally interested in fish population dynamics.
Because size is so important to the lives and family prospects of individuals, and is at least partially a heritable characteristic, it is a powerful agent of evolution. In any generation individuals will be of various sizes, but the ones that happen to have developed the best size (and other qualities) for the conditions of the time will be the ones that leave the most offspring, which will also be more or less that size. If the conditions change, the best size may be different, and natural selection will quickly favor another genetic lineage, with different average body size, for preferential survival. Evolution is the result of a conversation between the environment and the lives, particularly the reproductive processes, of the animals.
Microbes may influence somatic development. There is a constant conversation between host tissues and their symbiotic bacteria during development, with the immune system of the host acting as a key player (McFall-Ngai, 2002). Aside from their profound effect on cockroach development via various nutritional pathways, bacterial mutualists may directly influence cockroach morphogenesis. It is known that gut bacteria are required for the proper postembryonic development of the gut in P. americana (Bracke et al., 1978 Zurek and Keddie, 1996) normal intestinal function may depend on the induction of host genes by the microbes (Gilbert and
Impediments other than strictly economic ones exist as well, although Williamson might argue that all can be represented in terms of transaction costs. Symbiosis requires interchange of information about nearby industries and their inputs and outputs that is often difficult or costly to obtain. Kalundborg's small size of about 20 000 residents and relative isolation have made for a tight-knit community in which employees and managers interact socially with their counterparts on a regular basis. This cultural feature leads to what a local leader calls 'a short mental distance between firms' (V. Christensen, personal communication 1994). Cultural pressures are also important. As in many Scandinavian settings, there is a backdrop of environmental awareness. In Kalundborg, no deliberate institutional mechanism was needed to promote conversations among the potential partners. Inter-firm trust is important in establishing alliances or contracts among participants (Gulati 1995). An...
The main features of the recent history of conservation are a great expansion of government roles in protecting the environment and a growth of public interest in and support for this process. National park systems dedicated to the preservation of wild nature and to the provision of outdoor recreation space, has grown rapidly. Natural - forest systems, dedicated to the multiple use of wild - land resourses, have also become established. In the US the conservation of wildlife became a cause of national interest. A system of wildlife refuges was established. On private and on public - domain lands deterioration continued and it became widely recognized that many privately farmlands had been depleted or exhausted. Firm control over management of lands in the public domain to establish soil conversation was accepted as appropriate activities for the national government.
The modern conversation movement didn't have its beginnings in the settled of the Old World, but in the New World where, within the memory of a single generation, there had been extreme changes in the landscape and in the abundance of wildlife. The reaction to the destruction of natural resources precipitated the formation and growth of the conservation movement. In 1832 George Catlin, a U.S. artist and author, first proposed the idea of national parks in which Indians and wild country both be preserved. A little later, the writers Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Therein presented strong arguments concerning the importance of the continued survival of wild nature to the psychological well - being of mankind. The first book on conservation, Man and Nature , by George Perkins Marsh, appeared in the 1860s. In the same period the author and naturalist John Muir became a leading advocate of wilderness preservation. He was a founder of the Sierra Club. In 1872 the US Congress proclaimed...
Visiting an Italian friend's house, we observe a different style of furniture, and, in the kitchen, a different use of food. Opening a conversation on football or on policy, we discover further differences, but when we meet this friend abroad, maybe in Japan, immediately we can find a lot of similarities. We are both western inhabitants
In summary, to define social groups and to describe social dynamics one must describe interactions that may be positive, tolerant, or negative in terms of their consequences for those involved. However, the choice of interaction type, or of the way of quantifying it, may radically affect the researcher's interpretation of the outcome. This should not surprise us. An analogy with human social dynamics shows us that very different patterns of interaction appear if we view exchange of such commodities as money, conversation, or affection. And the picture changes yet again if we look at frequency rather than quantity or quality of the exchange. The most pernicious problem lies in correct interpretation of the context of the interchange. Is the individual to which the most money is observed to be given beloved kin, despised extortionist, or scarcely known shopkeeper
Let me now consider for a moment the art of the animal trainer. From conversations with these highly skilled people trainers of both dolphins and guide dogs my impression is that the first requirement of a trainer is that he must be able to prevent the animal from exerting choice at the level of step 4. It must continually be made clear to the animal that, when he knows what is the right thing to do in a given context, that is the only thing he can do, and no non-sense about it. In other words, it is a primary condition of circus success that the animal shall abrogate the use of certain higher levels of his intelligence. The art of the hypnotist is similar.
The films produced per year contain about 10 times as much information, the private photos about 100 times as much information, the TV transmissions 1000 times as much information and the private telephone conservations and faxes 10,000 times as much information as the books and newspapers, according to Jensen (2004). It means that books, newspapers, TV-transmissions, photos, telephone conversations and faxes together will contain information as eco-exergy corresponding to 2.2 x 106J yr, which is negligible compared with the information content of living organisms (see also the calculations in J0rgensen, 2006). The difference is that living organisms have information in many molecules (Avogadro's number is 6.2 x 1023), so the enormous number of molecules carrying the information is explaining why the information stored in the society is minor compared with the information stored in the living organisms. It means that the 3-value of books, films, photos, videos and so on is close to...
I must express my deepest gratitude to Tim Hardwick and the staff at CAB International for accepting this project to my friends and colleagues at the Institute of Ecology (University of Georgia) for hosting me while this book was being researched and to NSERC-Canada for their financial support. This book would not have been possible without the support and generosity of David Coleman during this time. I am very grateful to David Coleman, Dac Crossley and Paul Hendrix for countless conversations and a great deal of information. I also thank several friends and colleagues who have read and commented on various parts of this book J.D. Berger, D.C. Coleman, D.A. Crossley, B.S. Griffiths, B.L. Haines, PF. Hendrix, G. Kernaghan, D.A. Neher, D. Porter and G.W. Yeates, and Angela Burke for copy editing the manuscript. Finally, I thank Colleen for her unswerving understanding and help.
DEFINITION A metalogue is a conversation about some problematic subject. This conversation should be such that not only do the participants discuss the problem but the structure of the conversation as a whole is also relevant to the same subject. Only some of the conversations here presented achieve this double format.
(3) The Balinese are markedly dependent upon spatial orientation. In order to be able to behave they must know their cardinal points, and if a Balinese is taken by motor car over twisting roads so that he loses his sense of direction, he may become severely disorientated and unable to act (e.g., a dancer may become unable to dance) until he has got back his orientation by seeing some important landmark, such as the central mountain of the island around which the cardinal points are structured. There is a comparable dependence upon social orientation, but with this difference that where the spatial orientation is in a horizontal plane, social orientation is felt to be, in the main, vertical. When two strangers are brought together, it is necessary, before they can converse with any freedom, that their relative caste positions be stated. One will ask the other, Where do you sit and this is a metaphor for caste. It is asking, essentially, Do you sit high or low When each knows the caste...
Duets are typically either repeated sequences of two-way conversations (male call-female answer) (Figure 12.1, Figure 12.6 and Figure 12.10), or three-way ones (male call-female answer-male reply), or symphonies of grouped calls interspersed by grouped answers (Figure 12.8). In the sequenced duets, the female answer may follow the call after a variable latent time period (Figure 12.4, Figure 12.5 and Figure 12.10) or be overlapped with the latter portion of the
Sound barriers normally consist of heavy materials that block the passage of sound waves. An effective example is turf roofs in the vicinity of airports. Sound barriers are normally part of the construction itself, such as a concrete wall between apartments, but layers such as heavy plasterboard can also be added. Sound barriers should be complemented by effective sound absorbers. Most porous insulation materials can be used. In floors, good sound barriers can be provided by loose filled sand. However, while these materials can provide acoustic insulation against the higher frequencies - such as conversation, one must also provide sound insulation against step sound and other noise transmitted through the structure. To achieve this sufficiently, construction often has to include a floating layer or partitions that are not physically in direct contact with each other.
It must have done a favor for somebody once or twice. No one will speak up for it in friendly conversations. Everyone cold-shoulders it except for its relations. Whenever it is mentioned, people's faces turn to ice. Is there nothing to be said about the cockroach which is nice
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