Supporting smokers to stop smoking
Flagella and cilia are organelles of cell movement. Flagella are whiplike extensions of a cell, which may be many times longer than the main part of the cell. A cell can propel itself through a liquid by motion of a single flagellum. Examples of cells with a flagellum are the protist Euglena and the human sperm cell. Animal cells or some animal-like pro-tists may instead have cilia. Cilia are short hairlike projections covering the surface. They propel the cell by a coordinated beating action, like oarsmen on an ancient warship. The protist Paramecium is an example of a cell that propels itself this way. Cilia may have another function moving particles past stationary cells. This is their function in helping protists such as the stalked ciliates'' feed. Cilia also line the human respiratory tract, where they serve to expel inhaled particles. Damage to respiratory cilia from cigarette smoking impairs removal of harmful materials and causes smokers' cough.''
Epidemiology The study of the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases affecting large numbers within a population. These include both epidemics of infectious diseases and diseases associated with environmental factors and dietary habits (e.g. lung cancer, some forms of heart disease, etc.).
The utility of Nicotiana tabacum as a model biological system for scientific studies is extremely broadly based. For example, this species has provided the biological material for testing hypotheses concerning molecular and genomic evolution, gene function, the timing form of speciation, and the processes leading to the origin of cultivars (Volkov et al. 1999 Lim et al. 2000, 2004, 2007 Kitamura et al. 2001 Ren and Timko 2001 Fulnecek et al. 2002 Matyasek et al. 2002 Skalicka et al. 2003, 2005 Clarkson et al. 2004, 2005 Dadejova et al. 2007 Petit et al. 2007). However, the obvious notoriety of this plant centers on its use as one of H. sapiens' longstanding drugs of choice. The health risks of cigarette smoking, in particular, have been highlighted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the following way Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body causing many diseases and reducing the health of smokers in general. The adverse health effects from cigarette smoking...
It has become fashionable to regard hydrothermal systems as likely sites for organic synthesis and the origin of life (see Chang 1994 and references therein). Indeed, it has been claimed that present-day microorganisms with the oldest lineages based on molecular phylogenies are anaerobic, thermophilic, sulfur-dependent chemolitho-autotrophic archaebacteria (Woese 1987). It has been suggested that deep marine communities had formed around black smokers and white smokers already in the Precambrian (Kuznetsov et al. 1994). Fossil examples of such communities have been reported in Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous sulphur-rich, hydrothermal strata in the ophiolitic suites of the Urals and northeastern Russia, where they are accompanied by vestimentiferans (Pogonophora) and calyptogenid pelecypods similar to the inhabitants of present-day smokers (Kuznetsov 1989 Kuznetsov et al. 1994). Recognition of such sites in early Proterozoic sequences is, however, likely to prove difficult, and...
The synergy here lies in the hypothesis that changes in odour profile may be linked to VOCs present in parasite-infected blood that are different from uninfected blood and that these VOCs may be exchanged with the lung cavity at the alveolar interface. In line with the development of breathalyzers for ailments in the developed world (lung cancer, breast cancer, early detection of heart transplant rejection, tuberculosis) we quickly realized the importance of the availability of such devices for non-invasive and rapid screening of patients for malaria parasites. The advantages are numerous (Knols 2005). In particular, a biomarker for gametocyte carriage would give tremendous power of tackling the infectious reservoir with gametocidal drugs or selective protection of hosts when carrying infectious stages.
It is very difficult to prove that exposure to an environmental contaminant harms people, as evidenced by debates over tobacco smoke and asbestos. Risks usually have to be judged in terms of probabilities. The science of risk assessment has matured considerably since the National Academy of Sciences endorsedit (National Research Council, 1983). Risk assessment has been widely adopted within the public health profession. The risk to people exposed to PCBs in the fish they eat depends upon the amount of fish they consume, the PCB
Epidemiological evidence indicates that vitamin A is protective against lung cancer. Exposing rats to PCB, DDT, and dieldrin significantly reduced the stores of vitamin A in the liver. However, vitamin A can be toxic at high levels. On the other hand, p-carotene, which is a precursor of vitamin A, is fairly nontoxic. Vitamins E and C are both important antioxidants. Lipophilic vitamin E acts to protect the membranes from free radicals and
Or chronic, depending on the level of exposure. Acute effects include bronchial constriction and pulmonary edema (accumulation of fluid in the airways). Arsenical compounds can cause irritation, but chronic exposure can result in lung cancer. Many types of particles also harm the lungs, including smoke from cigarettes or other combustion sources, or dusts from industrial operations producing particles of asbestos, silicates, coal or even cotton, flax, or hemp. In the disease called silicosis, particles of certain crystalline forms of silica are engulfed by macrophages in the lungs, which then attempt to sequester the particles in lysosomes. However, the particles rupture the lysosome membranes. This releases the lysosome enzymes into the cytoplasm and destroys the cell, as well as causing damage to the lung tissue. In addition, the particles are released to continue the cycle of damage. Ultimately, fibrosis results, making breathing more difficult. In late stages the heart is...
These relationships may, at least partly, be explained by seasonally-related change in patterns of children's play and person-to-person contact (see also Chapter 6). Children who spend more time indoors in cold weather may inadvertently increase their exposure to indoor air pollutants, such as tobacco smoke, smoke from wood fires, and nitrogen dioxide emitted from un-flued gas heaters, depending on the amount of ventilation, which could confound the association between infections and cold temperatures (Jones, 1998).
Ethanol and carbon tetrachloride have a synergistic effect on the liver, and tobacco smoke and asbestos interact in lung cancer. In the latter case the interaction was defined differently from that above. It was observed that asbestos workers who did not smoke experienced a fivefold increase in their risk of lung cancer, and cigarette smokers who did not work with asbestos had an 11-fold increase. However, asbestos workers who smoked experienced a 55-fold increase in lung cancer rate. Thus, the interaction here is defined in terms of additivity of risk instead of additivity of toxicity. An example of poten-tiation is isopropanol, which does not harm the liver by itself but greatly increases the toxicity of carbon tetrachloride.
Despite the anomalous time lag, the connection that Winterhalder and Goland (1997) make between the initial use and eventual domestication of important crops is surely cogent, but perhaps more akin to the stochastic connection between smoking and lung cancer. Smoking one cigarette will (probably) not produce cancer even a lifetime usually does not but surely the longer one smokes, the greater the chance. Fortunately, the tobacco company subterfuge that no precise connection between smoking and lung cancer has ever been shown, that most lifetime smokers never develop cancer, and so on, has been unsuccessful. The public is not misled they know that smoking causes lung cancer. It seems similarly pointless to deny that there is a connection between the conditions that promote the use of potential domesticates and their eventual domestication. Foraging theory provides an elegant account of some of those conditions.
What triggers an investigation between an EDC and a human health effect Traditional ('classical') epidemio-logical studies were often designed to investigate unusual patterns of human health outcomes. Perhaps the most dramatic of these was the investigation of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in response to a cluster of seven cases of a rare vaginal cancer (clear cell adeno-carcinoma) in young women. Similarly, an awareness of increasing rates of lung cancer triggered the first studies of smoking and lung cancer. Some epidemiological studies of EDCs have similar origins. Indeed, DES itself is a quintessential EDC, and current research into possible EDC involvement in breast cancer causation and fertility impairment have been provoked by observations of human trends.
Synergistic response describes a situation where one component is concentrated enough to cause toxic effect by itself but the presence of another causes a much greater effect than the combined effects of the individual components. Sometimes two substances may have effects which reinforce each other so much that the combined effect is more than the additive. For example, tobacco smoke in combination with asbestos dust can cause lung cancer in humans more readily than exposure to either the cigarette smoke or asbestos dust alone. In fact, it has been documented that smokers are 40 times more likely than nonsmokers to get lung cancer following exposure to asbestos dust. In this case, the response is greater than additive toxicity (2 + 2 6).
Carbon monoxide, a colorless, odorless, toxic gas formed by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is the most prevalent and dangerous indoor pollutant. It results from poorly ventilated kitchens, rooms over garages, and un-vented combustion appliances (stoves, ovens, heaters, and the presence of tobacco smoke).
Hydrothermal vent (smoker) A site on the seabed from which hot springs arise that have been heated by contact with molten rock, usually along a mid-oceanic ridge (see plate tectonics). Temperatures may reach 300oC. These vents are often rich in minerals, especially sulfides, and support communities in which the primary producers are chemotrophic bacteria. Vents rich in copper, iron, and manganese are particularly hot, and the water is black they are known as black smokers. The cooler white smokers flow more slowly and usually contain quantities of arsenic and zinc.
The second type are called epigenetic carcinogens or promoters. They do not affect the DNA, but enhance the progression to cancer subsequent to initiation of genetic damage by the genotoxic carcinogen. Epigenetic carcinogens act by (1) encouraging cell division (promotion), (2) inhibiting intercellular communication, or (3) impeding mechanisms for destroying aberrant cells. Tobacco smoke contains both initiators and promoters.
Dermatitis haematological changes headaches irritation of eyes, nose, and throat lung cancer Spontaneous abortions congenital birth defects bioaccumulation in food chains Birth defects skin disorders liver damage suppression of the immune system Respiratory tract and lung cancers skin cancers
Mortality rate is usually measured as the proportion of deaths per unit time in a given cohort of organisms. If the time unit is small enough, it can be interpreted as the instantaneous probability to die per unit time. In mathematical models, in which mortality is the only process that affects population dynamics, the instantaneous mortality rate equals the normalized derivative (dN dt) N. In human epidemiology, mortality rate is measured by the annual number of deaths per 1000 people. It is distinct from morbidity rate, which refers to the number ofpeople who have a disease compared to the total number of people in a population. If mortality rates are compared between different groups of people, for example, men and women or smokers and nonsmokers, then the group of individuals with a higher mortality rate is said to have a risk factor (e.g., genotype or behavior) which causes additional mortality. The ratio of mortality rates in the group with the risk factor and control group is...
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