Soap Making Basics Workshop
Of the classes of PPCPs in the environment that have received a relatively high level of study are antibiotic therapeutics and antibacterial agents. Similar to other pharmaceuticals, antibiotics are specifically used to target various biomolecules in animals. Generally classified as personal care products, antimicrobial agents including triclosan and triclocarban are heavily utilized in products ranging from soaps to toothpaste. Such molecules that implicitly target microorganisms are ofparticular concern for 'nontarget' species residing in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as well as the critical ecosystem functions (e.g., nutrient cycling and decomposition) that are mediated by lower-trophic-level organisms. Table 1
Varied dilute acids Washing and purifying soaps High in BOD and saponified soaps TNT, colored, acid, odorous, and containing organic acids and alcohol from powder and cotton, metals, acid, oils, and soaps High organic matter, benzenering structure, toxic to bacteria and fish, and acid
Diesters of phthalic acid, commonly referred to as phtha-lates, are widely used in industry and commerce, including personal care products (such as makeup, shampoo, and soaps), plastics, medical tubing and medication coatings, paints, and some pesticide formulations. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic cannot be made without adding phthalate plasticizers, which act as softeners. Phthalates are not chemically bonded to PVC, so the phthalates readily migrate out of the PVC (e.g., when a baby sucks on a PVC toy), resulting in human exposure to phthalates. For example, most 'rubber duckies' are about 50 PVC, and the remaining 50 is the phthalate di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), which is actually a mixture of a large number of 100 isomers.
Fatty acids are produced from plants such as pine, linseed and soya. They are used in alkyd oil paints and varnishes as drying agents. They can themselves also be the binding agents in these products. Some, including butyric acid CH3(CH2)2COOH, are used further in producing bioplastics. Soaps, used for treatment and saturation of wood, are derived by reacting fatty acids with lye (potash) in a process known as saponification.
Macroscopic marine algae (seaweeds or sea vegetables) form an important living resource of the near shore environment. For millennia, people have collected sea weeds for food, fodder for animals, as well as fertilizers and soil enhancers. More recently, seaweeds have become important sources of various biochemicals, such as phycocolloids, and are important in medicine and bio technology. We all use seaweed products in our daily life in some way or other. For example, some seaweed poly saccharides (sometimes referred to as phycocolloids) are used in toothpaste, soaps, shampoo, cosmetics, milk, ice cream, processed meats and other foods, air fresheners, and many other items. In many Asian countries such as Japan, China, and Korea, they are dietary staples.
For most of recorded history, household wastes not left on the floor were simply thrown outside the dwelling to decompose or to be scavenged. In rural areas this was not troubling because little other than food waste and ashes was thrown away. Used clothing, furniture, tools and weapons were carefully repaired or handed down, even in wealthy households. Rags were recycled for paper making. Some organic wastes such as fat and bones were used by households to make soap, candles and other items. In cities, similar patterns prevailed, with the addition of loosely organized groups of scavengers who recovered items of value from the street (Strasser 1999).
Diesters of phthalic acid, commonly referred to as phthalates, are widely used in industry and commerce, including in personal care products (such as makeup, shampoo and soaps), plastics, medical tubing and medication coatings, paints and some pesticide formulations. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic cannot be made without adding phthalate plasticizers, which act as softeners. Phthalates are not chemically bonded to PVC, so the phthalates readily migrate out of the PVC (e.g., when a
One of the unique disinfection features of the bactericidal quaternary compounds is that they have a distinctly higher level of effectiveness with many gram-positive bacteria, probably due to the added depth and complexity of their membrane structure. Conversely, gram-negative cells as a whole are often similarly considered to be somewhat more resistant, perhaps due to the added depth and complexity of their membrane structure. Indeed, Pseudomonas probably tops the list in terms of durability, under conditions that would foil the vast majority of other cells (e.g., growth in distilled water). Similarly, gram-positive Mycobacteria species, as well as spore formers, also tend to exhibit this resistant nature when challenged with quaternary disinfectants, apparently based on the protective capacity of their respective outer cell coatings. Finally, given their chemical nature, these quat compounds also bear a unique sensitivity to inactivation when exposed to complexing soaps, detergents,...
Concentrations in several species of Piper, particularly P hispidinervum. This propenylphe-nol and its derivatives have been used successfully in powerful insecticides, as well as in fragrances, waxes, polishes, soaps, and detergents. Thus, P. hispidinervum has been cultivated for high levels of safrole and could contribute significantly to tropical economies and conservation efforts (Rocha and Ming 1999). A recent example that typifies the search for insecticidal properties of Piper amides is the work of Yang et al. (2002), in which the authors demonstrate the effectiveness of a piperidine amide (pipernonaline, extracted from P. longum infructescence) against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae. This insecticidal activity has potential human importance because these mosquitoes are vectors for yellow fever. The most extensive review of Piper phytochemistry (Parmar et al. 1997) summarizes the bioac-tivity of Piper chemistry, and most examples are medicinal or pesticidal. The most common uses...
Early process control can reduce the quantity of treatable waste. Segregation as a part of early control can simplify treatment processes. The presence of emulsifiers, wetting agents, soaps, deflocculants, and dispersants, as well as finely divided suspended solids, makes separation of oily materials and the treatment of wastes more difficult. Advantages can be realized from high temperatures and low pH levels, and the presence of substances that make necessary pH adjustments impractical may be avoided.
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