Social Interactions Ebooks Catalog

Quit Marijuana The Complete Guide

This now famous guide has helped thousands of people overcome marijuana. None have had to spend another cent on marijuana, munchies, detox kits, rehab or therapy. Like thousands before you, quit weed the easy way! Defuse your psychological addiction very quickly. The one major sneaky secret that will banish your cravings for marijuana. How to get some sleep naturally, without smoking marijuana. What you will be feeling, thinking and struggling with, and some Real-Life solutions that will actually work for you. What you should never do when you first try to quit weed (you are probably already doing this right now!) Stop mental fogginess! Gain clarity, focus and motivation to upgrade your career or education. Lung Cleansing Course included! Cleanse your lungs and experience larger lung capacity, clearer breathing and an increased chest size! Finally get rid of that 'feeling' you get to smoke weed, (discover who the real you is and claim your life back!) Support Gain 24/7 personal email support or talk to other marijuana quitters in our forum. Instantly enhance your own natural conversation skills and social interaction. Warning This guide changes how you actually look at weed! More here...

Quit Marijuana The Complete Guide Summary


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Shyness And Social Anxiety System

The Shyness and Social Anxiety System is just as its name says. It is an e-book wherein in-depth discussions about the symptoms, causes and treatment for shyness and social anxiety are made. It is then written for individuals whose extreme shyness or social anxiety prevent them from enjoying a full life filled with social interactions among their family, friends and acquaintances in gatherings during holidays, outings and parties. The author Sean Cooper also suffered from shyness and social anxiety disorder so much so that he tried every trick in the book yet to no avail. And then he set out to conquer his own fears by researching into the psychology, principles and practices behind these two debilitating mental health issues. More here...

Shyness And Social Anxiety System Summary

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Author: Sean Cooper
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Isbn13 9789812771575 Isbn10 9812771573

Gard non-trophic properties of populations and non-trophic interactions1 that exist among populations. Such properties and interactions include animal behavior, plant dispersal,2 direct competition, and chemical or social interactions. Nonetheless, food web models serve an important purpose in ecology in that they are a structured attempt to analyze the topological and dynamical properties of ecological communities and can, in principle, be extended to account for non-trophic properties.

Applications of the Science

Interest in Allee effects has revived partially as a result of an increasing concern about extinction of rare populations, harvested populations, or pest species. Conservation efforts have clearly benefited from a concern about the existence of Allee effects. When animals are reduced to such low numbers that captive breeding programs are the only way to recover populations, consideration of Allee effects may improve breeding success. In numerous species, breeding is socially facilitated by interactions with other individuals. For some social species like primates, captive breeding efforts that allow individuals to interact with each other may improve breeding success. Furthermore, attempts to reintroduce animals to reserves will likely benefit by accounting for positive effects of neighbors after re-introduction. If social interactions are important either during the settlement process or after individuals have selected habitat, introducing conspecific cues might help establish...

Behavioral Observations Categories and Analyses

We used a standardized ethogram, based on those by de Waal (1988) and Vervaecke et al. (2000a). Stevens conducted continuous observations throughout the day, starting in the morning and ending at dusk, when social interactions between the bonobos generally ceased. Frequent night observations at Planckendael revealed that no substantial social interactions occur after nest building or before feeding in the morning. Observations halted only when the bonobos were separated for cage cleaning or management purposes. Between 4 and 8 hours of observations occurred daily. The observations comprised a combination of focal animal sampling, all occurrence sampling of agonistic, affiliative and sociosexual behaviors and instantaneous scan sampling for proximity. Stevens recorded observations manually and later entered them in the Observer software (Noldus), or entered them directly in the Observer. When social interactions were very frequent, e.g. during feeding bouts, he made video recordings...

Receptivity of places and populations

In some instances, however, individuals who are extensively connected because they have resources that allow them to travel may be more likely to come into contact with unusual pathogens. In fact, in some countries, such as Tanzania and Kenya, household wealth is positively associated with HIV prevalence (Shelton et al., 2005). Wealth may be associated with mobility and resources to maintain social interactions and concurrent sexual partnerships. In any country, availability of a strong health-care system and wide access to medical resources make it more likely that a disease will be recognized early and diagnosed. Access to treatment may limit morbidity and mortality, as well as spread of infection. Transparency about reporting infectious diseases and the capacity to organize and support appropriate public health investigation and response may limit the impact of an introduced infection. Social support may also be important in the successful completion of treatment for infections...

The ecology of behavior

Vidual organisms and, conversely, the effect of individual behavior on the dynamics of populations and communities. This is part of the field known as behavioral ecology. We concentrate on foraging and social interactions because these characteristics often have important ecological ramifications that affect wildlife conservation and management. We start with a consideration of the many ways that organisms can choose what and where to eat, then move on to consider how ecological constraints affect social organization.

Methods Study Groups Data Collection and Analysis

To evaluate the exchange of social interactions we used ratios calculated as logarithm (performed +1) (received +1) per individual, thus obtaining an index that is positive when the individual gives more than it receives and negative when it gives less. We used the Spearman test to evaluate the correlation between rank and exchanged social interactions in the whole group and then separately in females in both study periods. Unfortunately, the correlations could not be carried out for males because there were only three adult individuals.

Social and Sexual Interactions

Exchanged Social Interactions The grooming ratio is not correlated with rank in either study period (first period rs 0, n 8, n.s., two-tailed second period rs 0.43, n 6, n.s., two-tailed). We obtained the same result for food sharing ratio and rank (first period rs 0.24, n 8, n.s., two-tailed second period rs -0.6, n 6, n.s., two-tailed). Similarly, rank is not correlated with the ratio of peering in either period (first period rs 0.167, n 8, n.s., two-tailed second period rs -0.086, n 6, n.s., two-tailed). Even the ratio of invitation to GG-rubbing is not correlated with rank (first period rs -0.4, n 8, n.s., two-tailed second period rs 0.2, n 6, n.s., two-tailed) and the result is the same for comparisons of the GG-rubbing frequency in each dyad with the observed rank distance (Matman's row-wise correlation, first period Kr 13, taurw 0.44, n.s., two-tailed second period Kr -3, taurw -0.26, n.s., two-tailed). Accordingly, rank-related asymmetries in social interactions are not...

Measuring Social Capital

Social network analysis enables the resources that circulate between various social actors to be identified by looking at the relational patterns between them, that is by studying the way in which social relationships are structured and how they function. The underlying hypothesis is that the structure of social interactions is a factor that determines the opportunities and limitations to accessing resources, while recognizing that the structure itself is a product of these interactions. The approach is structural if the conclusions are drawn from the study of network structures if the focus is on the way in which the network operates, the approach is transactional or relational. In all cases, however, social network analysis involves an empirical approach to examining the relationships between entities (individuals and groups) rather than their attributes, which is the focus of traditional social surveys (Franke 2005 13).

Social Play as a Tension Reduction Tactic

Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) cope with competitive tendencies via grooming among adults (de Waal 1992, Koyama and Dunbar 1996) and via playing between adults and unrelated immature individuals (Palagi et al., 2004). The mechanisms seem to alleviate the tension that rises before feeding time (celebration, de Waal 1992). Probably, the tolerant society of bonobos, with its less differentiated roles between the sexes (de Waal 2001, Kano 1980, Kuroda 1979, 1980, Paoli and Palagi 2008), may facilitate adult-adult play during situations of high tension. The distribution of play among adult bonobos matches that observed for grooming in adult chimpanzees (Koyama and Dunbar 1996, Palagi et al. 2004). The use of play during stressful social situations (prefeeding) is particularly interesting given the commonly held view that stress suppresses play here play appears to regulate stress.

Adult Play in Pan Species in Comparative Perspective

In 1999, Pellis and Iwaniuk suggested that adult social play occurs to a higher extent in species characterized by fluid societies. When individuals meet each other periodically, adult play may have a role in social assessment. In rhesus monkeys, play among adults is used to manipulate some social situations (Brueggeman 1978). Bonobos and chimpanzees are characterized both by a fission-fusion society and male philopatry, yet they show striking differences in play frequency and modality among adults. Accordingly, the type of social system does not seem to be a sufficient condition by which adult-adult play may have been favored selectively in bonobos.

Situations and practices

Defining consumers by their practices obliges us to study the contexts of the activities, routines and habits that shape the acts of consumption. Speaking about consumers' practices implies reproducing the social situations in which standards are an important constraint, as well as all the other actors (Boltanski and Th venot, 1991). Standards are of different types and all deserve to be taken into consideration. Environmentally friendly actions acquire their meaning in a context whose rules are shared by others. The consumer's power to change consumption patterns depends on the situation, i.e. on the constraints that permit the reproduction of social practices. Practices refer to more ongoing actions than behaviours.

Emergence in Biological Systems

Outside, and thus semiotics play an important role, creating patterns impossible to foresee if only the subsystems are known. For example, in trees, the formation of branches and leaf mosaics have been studied in a number of recent investigations with modeling approaches as well as the allocation of resources between above- and belowground biomass and the related physiological mechanisms. A modeling study of this problem indicates a 'complex integrated growth pattern' which may only be understood as an emergent property as it is claimed to have no direct or indirect mechanistic basis related to subcellular activities. In a similar manner it was shown that whole-plant behavior is an emergent property arising from a rule-based model of the system. Communications between individuals, that is, their social interactions within a population, are important to the function of the organism as a whole and are indistinguishable from the emergence of ethological features. Stressing the importance...

Predicting Future Extinction and Factors That Make Species Endangered

For some species there is a positive feedback whereby a decline in population size also causes a predictable (as opposed to chance) decline in survival or reproductive success of the remaining individuals. When reductions in population catalyze further population decline, it is called an Allee effect. Allee effects can occur in certain species that experience difficulty in finding a mate when at low density. Imagine, for example, the difficulties that a whale might have in finding a mate if there are only a few hundred whales left throughout an enormous ocean. One reason the Northern Right whale is not recovering, even though all hunting on it has been halted, is that mates cannot locate one another in the vast ocean. Allee effects have been well documented in certain small populations of plants that rely on insect pollinators such as bees. Bees often specialize on visiting abundant plant species because they can more efficiently gather pollen and nectar if they keep visiting the same...

Reintroduced populations

Mismatch between rearing and release habitats may result in individuals being unable to make optimal habitat choices. Social interactions can also be critical, such as attraction to active breeding conspecifics. Visual and or sound decoys (e.g., mimicking successful conspecifics) can attract individuals to sites identified as suitable by managers. Decoys of predators can also be used to deter focal individuals from settling in areas identified as low quality. In other words, understanding the cues used by individuals for selecting a habitat patch allows manipulating these cues to alter individuals' choices.

General Application of Kin Selection

The true power of kin selection theory is its generality kin selection can help explain a huge range of social interactions and not just altruistic cooperation. The simplest cases are when interacting individuals are more closely related, they should be more likely to cooperate, show more selfish restraint, and show less aggression. A range of more subtle possibilities arise whenever there is the potential for cooperation or conflict between relatives. A few examples of these are

Sex and age differences

As in many other migrants, females of irruptive species often move earlier, in greater proportion or further than males, while juveniles of both sexes often move earlier, in greater proportion and further than adults. Although not all these tendencies emerged in every species examined, they suggest that competitive social interactions over food supplies influence the migration dates and distances of individuals, causing some to move earlier and further than others (Chapter 15). Females outnumbered or moved further than males in Northern Bullfinches Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Gatter 1976, M0ller 1978, Riddington & Ward 1998), Bramblings Fringilla montifringilla (Payevsky 1971, Cramp & Perrins 1994) and Evening Grosbeaks Hesperiphona vespertina (Prescott 1991). In some other species, almost all the immigrants in some irruptions were juveniles, as found in Eurasian Jays Garrulus glandarius, Great Tits Parus major, Blue Tits P. caeruleus, Coal Tits P. ater and Great-spotted Woodpeckers...

How Do Foragers Assess Danger

Gerbils in the Negev Desert in Israel react to noises that indicate the presence ofbarn owls (Abramsky et al. 1996). Prey may know the general density of predators by detecting signs of predators. Part of this information comes directly from the inevitable sights, sounds, and smells that predators create. Furthermore, predators often betray their presence through their territorial behavior or other social interactions. Lions roaring and wolves howling are two examples that are obvious even to humans. Among seabirds, petrels limit their exposure after eavesdropping on the territorial calls of predatory skuas (Mougeot and Bretagnolle 2000).

HE Hinton Biology of Insect Eggs

It is difficult to conceive of any group of animals that are as universally and diversely social as cockroaches. Given the range of habitats they have mastered and their versatility in reproductive mode and feeding habits, it is unsurprising that they exhibit extraordinary variation in their social organization. Individual taxa are typically described as solitary, gregarious, or subsocial. We structure this chapter around those categories, treating each in turn, with the caveat that this simplistic pigeonholing masks the head-banging vexation we encountered in attempting to classify the social heterogeneity present. Cockroaches that live in family groups are a rather straightforward category, and domestic pests and a number of cave-dwelling species are without a doubt gregarious. For a variety of reasons many others elude straightforward classification. First, the majority of cockroaches are unstudied in the field, and the nature and frequency of social interactions have been...

Evolution Of Sociality

The diverse relationships of individuals in a social network interact to create complex emergent patterns. These patterns, like the vortex that appears in an emptying sink, is not contained in the structure of a single component. Because a society represents a whole with properties different from those of its component parts, the ultimate consequences of social interactions may be remote from an observed action. This is a fact that evolution by natural selection can take in its stride but that we, as primarily linear cause-and-effect thinkers, may find hard to accommodate. It may be clear that a lion killing a zebra is behaving adaptively, but less clear whether it is adaptive when the same lion prevents a conspecific from feeding at the kill. The immediate effect is that the first lion may have more food to eat, but the ultimate effects reverberate through a stochastically unpredictable system of long-term consequences among the whole pride. Denied food or coalitionary aid by an ally...

Conservation Applications

An understanding of the dynamics of a social system is a prerequisite to predicting the effect of human activities on, for example, spatial organization, population dynamics, and dispersal. For example, attempts to control the transmission of bovine tuberculosis by killing badgers, a reservoir of the disease, clearly disrupts the society of survivors. The effects of such perturbation on social dynamics may alter the transmission of the disease, plausibly for the worse (Swinton et al. 1997). A similar case may be argued regarding rabies control (Macdonald 1995). Translocation of elephants without regard for the social structure that provides adolescent discipline has led to problem animals in some African parks (McKnight 1995). Tuyttens and Macdonald (in press) review some consequences of behavioral disruption for wildlife management. Population control has been shown to affect the rate and pattern of dispersal (Clout and Efford 1984), home range size (Berger and Cunningham 1995),...

Nonbreeding Distributions In Age And Sex Groups Of The Same Population

Social interactions are held as the basis for many of the age and sex differences in migration that occur within species, and for the fact that individuals of many species migrate in the early years of their life but not later (Chapter 15). In general, the dominant individuals, taking precedence over resources, are less likely to leave their breeding range than are subordinates, or if the dominants do leave, they migrate less far, or stay away for shorter periods (Gauthreaux 1978a, 1982a). In winters of unusually poor food supply, the benefits of migration may extend further up the social hierarchy to a greater proportion of individuals than usual. This type of competition could influence the migration and distribution patterns of birds directly, and independently of genetic factors, whereas most of the differences between species are presumed to be genetically determined, as a result of competition in the past.

A Proximity to the nearest neighbour

Figure 10.8 The same observations of social interactions can be expressed in three ways as the total flux of a given behavior pattern, as a rate, or as a proportion. In this case, the total frequency is greater between A and B than between A and C (b c), but qualitatively the components of their relationship are the same. Figure 10.8 The same observations of social interactions can be expressed in three ways as the total flux of a given behavior pattern, as a rate, or as a proportion. In this case, the total frequency is greater between A and B than between A and C (b c), but qualitatively the components of their relationship are the same.

Heterochrony Revisited

The recognition that heterochronic processes play a fundamental role in social adaptations is increasingly recognized in birds and mammals (see references in Gariepy et al., 2001 Lawton and Lawton, 1986) but to date changes in developmental timing have not received the attention they deserve in studies of social insect evolution. Hete-rochrony is pervasive in termite evolution, and most aspects of isopteran biology can be examined within that framework (Nalepa and Bandi, 2000). The evolution of the initial stages of termite eusociality from subsocial ancestors described above is predicated on a behavioral het-erochrony, an alteration in the timing of the expression of parental care (Nalepa, 1988b, 1994). Recently, behavioral heterochrony has been recognized as a key mechanism in hymenopteran social evolution as well (Linksvayer and Wade, 2005). Behavioral heterochronies often precede physiological changes, with the latter playing a subsequent supportive role (e.g., Gariepy et al.,...

Summary and synthesis

Among wild primates, a large number of field studies have examined patterns of habitat use, demography, and social interactions. We also know that primates harbor an incredible diversity of parasites and infectious diseases (Chapman et al. 2005a Nunn and Altizer 2005). Yet surprisingly few studies have linked host characteristics, including abundance, life history traits, and behavior with patterns of parasite occurrence. Furthermore, no comprehensive experimental studies addressing parasite ecology have been conducted in wild primate populations (even though such experiments are feasible, Janson 2000). Inferences of the population impacts of primate parasites are therefore made indirectly, except where conspicuous epidemics have decimated previously intact primate populations (Chapter 1). One priority for the future is to collect comprehensive monitoring data for a variety of disease-causing agents in wild primates (Chapter 7), including those shared with human hosts (Chapter 8,...

Biological Impacts on Spatial Patterns

The behavior and life styles of organisms are extremely varied, and patterns of spatial distribution exhibit a great deal of variation. Mobile organisms move around in order to acquire resources and may also engage in social interactions with conspecifics. This means that behavioral choices play a profound role in shaping occurrence patterns. One of the most obvious cases of this effect is the congregation into cooperative flocks seen in many animal species. The exact nature of these flocks differs widely among organisms - from the loose aggregations of resting brent geese (Branta bernicla), via the socially complex cooperative units of wolf (Canis lupus) packs to the super-individual hive structure of eusocial insects.

Bronwyn H Bleakley Jason B Wolf and Allen J Moore

Social selection is only one half of the evolutionary equation because, for there to be phenotypic evolution (i.e. changes in mean phenotypes across generations), the changes in phenotype distributions within a generation resulting from selection must be translated into cross-generation changes. It is the genetic variation underlying traits that determines how within-generational changes in phenotype distributions result in cross-generational changes therefore, to evolve, social behaviour must have a genetic component. In this chapter we show that the evolution of behaviour expressed in (or affected by) social interactions is fundamentally the same as that for any other traits. That is, there are genetic and environmental influences on social behaviour, and genetic variation underlying phenotypic variation in a social trait allows it to evolve. We simultaneously argue that the genetics of such traits are different from most other sorts of traits (e.g. morphological or physiological)....

Where Is Foraging Theory

While the basic foraging models provide insight into many foraging problems, they seldom provide a complete solution of any particular foraging problem. For example, they say nothing about tradeoffs with predator avoidance, or social interactions. In response, behavioral ecologists have extended and refined foraging theory in several directions. This section identifies three of these growing points in foraging theory.

The Real Impact of Continuous Grazing

A continuously grazed paddock must be large enough to supply enough forage for an entire year or climatic grazing season. Paddock size is driven up by herd size big enough for efficient ranch operation and by the cost and logistics of water supply and fencing. Paddock size will also be influenced by declining forage production per hectare with decreasing average rainfall in semi-arid environments. Landscape heterogeneity increases with the size of a grazing unit (Senft et al. 1985 Stuth, 1991 Bailey et al. 1996), resulting in heavier impact on preferred areas and a greater proportion of the paddock receiving light utilization or total neglect. Selection is affected a little by small-scale heterogeneity at the feeding station level but is profoundly affected by large-scale heterogeneity at the landscape level (WallisDeVries and Schippers 1994 Barnes 2002). Both the spatial arrangement of grazing patches and the scale of patchiness are major determinants of selectivity during grazing...

Microhabitats and activity

Climbing on bushes, and burying in the sand (a depth of 20 cm is enough to maintain constant Tb day and night). There was little evidence of basking or of stilting behaviour although Onymacris species have long legs, stilting may be effective only in a narrow range of wind velocities. Microhabitat shifts were thus more important than postural adjustments in controlling Tb (Ward and Seely 1996a). Although the beetles are exposed to high surface temperatures, sand is a readily available thermal refuge providing access to a broad range of Ta. Comparative phylogenetic analysis shows perfect coadaptation of preferred and field Tb in Onymacris (Ward and Seely 1996b). Many desert tenebrionids show biphasic activity to avoid high midday temperatures. However, this is not the case in all biphasic desert beetles. For example, in keratin-feeding Omorgus species (Trogidae) of the Kalahari desert, the relationship between temperature and surface activity is more complex a dawn peak of activity, at...

Bees food quality and body temperature

The beauty of infrared thermography is that it does not disturb social interactions such as the dancing behaviour of honeybees or the unloading of nectar by trophallaxis. Graduated thermal behaviour occurs during food unloading in the hive as well as at the feeding site. The temperature of dancing bees recruiting their nestmates increases with food quality and the number of brood cells, and decreases with distance of the food source from the hive and the amount of stored honey (Stabentheiner 1991, 2001). Foraging bees returning from feeders with high flow rates (8.2 mlmin 1 of 50 per cent w w sucrose solution) have high Tth during trophallaxis and transfer the food quickly. The receiver bees also raise their Tth during trophallaxis, and Farina and Wainselboim (2001) use a thermogram to show a 3.7oC increase in Tth of a receiver bee during 18 s of food transfer, equivalent to a heating rate of 12.3oCmin 1 During this time, Tth of the donor bee was relatively unchanged. Figure 6.16...

Concluding Remarks

The landscape is an emergent level of functional complexity. Such a level appears when space and time are extrapolated from an un-scaled functional or structural level. Landscape ecology can describe a part of an ecosystem or a mosaic of interrelated ecosystems. These two visions are not interdependent but they suggest that in nature processes and patterns often appear in a self-similar fashion. Emerging properties at a specific geographical scale and the effect of the composite mosaic are two faces of the same coin. Such emerging characteristics can be interpreted by organisms according to their different life traits. For instance, soil heterogeneity influences vegetation and soil organisms that in turn affect meso and large animals. A common feature of any landscape is its heterogeneity. This heterogeneity may be scaled on structure, water, and nutrients for plants, or on suitable habitat-patches for animals. A matrix in landscape ecology is comprised of the dominant cover of a land...

Social Factors

The benefits of migrating in flocks may explain why many birds do not start migration from their nesting places, which are scattered over a wide area, but first assemble at particular staging sites, often used year after year, and from which birds depart over a period of days or weeks. This behaviour is especially obvious in shorebirds and waterfowl, but occurs in many others, including cranes, gulls, terns and shearwaters. Although related to weather, the departures and arrivals of individuals are partly under social influence. Through social interactions, including vocal activity, individuals of flocking species seem to communicate their readiness to migrate, and thereby synchronise their departures. Some species display pre-flight intention movements, and intense calling, with repeated take-offs and landings, before finally setting off. Among shorebirds, some of these preliminary flights occur in highly structured formations, as do the departures themselves (Piersma et al. 1990b)....

General Conclusions

Contrary to the common view derived from single-group studies, we found many variants from the presumed conciliatory, peaceful, and egalitarian bonobo. Bonobos exhibit relatively low conciliatory tendencies. Furthermore, serious aggression occurs. Intersexual aggression is especially common females gang together against lower-ranking males (Parish 1996). We observed fierce female attacks on lower-ranking males in Planckendael, Twycross, Apenheul, Wuppertal and Frankfurt Zoo. Often they result in the temporary or permanent removal of the target males, though lethal aggression that occurs among chimpanzees (de Waal 1986) is not recorded. The orphan males, which have been hand-reared, have no mother to back them up during conflicts, and may lack social skills to cope with the attacks, are typical scapegoats of redirected aggression and suffer most from violent female attacks. But mothers do not always support their sons in conflicts, and may opt to provide support to the party opposing...


It is difficult to determine what agonistic dominance implies in bonobos we did not single out any clear benefit of being a high-ranking individual in terms of asymmetries in social interactions. Even the evidence for a positive relationship between male rank and copulations was mixed when comparing the results of the two study periods and reviewing the literature. Parish (1994, 1996) showed that dominance ranks fit perfectly with feeding priority in a captive group of bonobos specifically she illustrated that all adult females had priority over the sole adult male. We have no datum on feeding priority from our study group, but the result by Parish seems compatible with data from wild groups, wherein females are rarely attacked by males and enjoy feeding priority (Wrangham 1993, Furuichi 1997, Furuichi and Hashimoto 2002). Even if it is problematic to draw generalizations, we can suggest that a likely primary benefit of being a high-ranking individual is the priority of access to food...

Coastal Bird IBMS

Key variables in these models are the successive ebb and flow of the tide, which determine the availability of inter-tidal feeding areas, and temperature, which has a large impact on the daily energy requirements of coastal birds, and hence the amount of food they need to consume to survive. The habitat is divided into a number of discrete patches, which vary in their exposure through the tidal cycle and the quantity, quality, and type of food. Time is divided into discrete time steps (typically 1 to 6 hours in duration), during each of which birds choose where and on what to feed, or whether to roost. A single simulation covers the winter season, i.e., 6-7 months. Individual birds are characterized by a suite of state variables, including foraging efficiency, dominance, location, diet, assimilation rate, metabolic rate, and amount of body reserves. Social interactions are incorporated through interference competition (e.g., food stealing), which...


Although some cases of male transfer have been reported in chimpanzees, there is no record of permanent immigration of adult males. This fact may reflect the intolerant relationships between males from different groups of chimpanzees (Nishida 1985, Goodall 1986, Wrangham and Peterson 1996, Reynolds 2005). Contrarily, bonobos sometimes display affinitive relationships between different groups (Idani 1990). Different groups of bonobos sometimes forage together for as long as a week, and members of these groups exhibit affiliative social interactions. Though further observation of the new immigrants is needed, the high tolerance between different groups of bonobos might have enabled the permanent aggregation of fragmented groups, as observed in the above-mentioned cases of Japanese macaques.

Sx I px72

Optimizing the trade-off between starvation and predation involves more than regulating fat reserves. Modelers have used the dynamic state variable approach to study several other aspects of the starvation-predation trade-off, including seasonal variations in the environment, daily foraging routines, food hoarding, nocturnal hypothermia, and social interactions within flocks. We will discuss each of these topics briefly, indicating appropriate changes to the basic model. Box 7.3 discusses the benefits and limitations of dynamic state variable models in more detail.

Toward a New Ecology

Since the first Earth Day in April 1970 and the rise of the modern environmental movement, social scientists have rediscovered the environment while biologists have probed social interactions. Meanwhile, several ecologists have addressed human communities, and planners and architects have attempted to provide syntheses to shape human communities. In addition to the stimulus from popular culture, as expressed in wide-ranging areas from politics to music, advances in theory through computing technologies, urban morphology (the study of how cities are structured physically), landscape studies, and ideas about complexity have contributed to this renewed interest in the environment by social scientists. From within the biological sciences, research has altered conventional views about organism-environment interactions. Increasingly, ecologists consider human influences on their environments.

What Animals Learn

Evidence of learning in animals has been obtained with respect to foraging, territoriality, predator avoidance, dispersal, migration, thermoregulation, communication, mating behavior, parental care, kin recognition, and other social interactions. In these contexts, animals learn relevant features of their environment. Animals can learn the caloric content, nutrient profile, and handling time associated with food types, and the genetic and direct benefits offered by different mates. They learn the quality distribution of essential resources such as food, breeding sites, and mates. In other words, information about virtually every aspect of an animal's ecology may be acquired through learning. Of course, not every animal of every species or population is expected to learn all possible behavior in all ecological contexts. What, if anything, is learned should depend on the net value of learning to the individual. Two observations support this statement. First, animals frequently show...

Mutualism Defined

Beneficial interactions between individuals of the same species, often involving social interactions. Examples of species in which cooperation is an important feature include naked mole rats and honeybees and other social insects. Finally, facilitation differs from mutualism in that, while it does involve positive feedback, it is not necessarily an interspecific interaction. Facilitation typically refers to the modification of some component of the abiotic or biotic environment by one species that then enhances colonization, recruitment, and establishment of another species, such as occurs during succession.

Mating Behavior

Mating behavior involves many kinds of social interactions they can be one-on-one, two-on-one, or large groups, such as the leks of males that gather to display to females in many bird species (e.g., the black grouse). Mating behavior includes mate choice, intrasexual competition for mates, and parental care. Mate choice can lead to competition among one sex for mates of the other sex. The evolution of mating behavior was first analyzed by Charles Darwin in his 1871 theory of sexual selection. Darwin explained extreme male features, such as elaborate physical traits and behavioral displays, as resulting from female preferences for these traits. Without explaining where the female preference comes from, Darwin pointed out that any trait that increases the likelihood of mating will increase reproductive success and thus be favored by natural selection. Darwin called this process sexual selection, to distinguish it from natural selection. These ideas were developed theoretically by...

Social evolution

Plants have, in this sense, plenty of opportunity for social interactions between relatives. The application of Hamilton's rule, and especially the concept of relatedness, helps our understanding of many reproductive phenomena. The reproductive biology of angiosperms outlines many opportunities for conflict (see Mock and Parker 1997). Pollen consists of two haploid cells (microspores) produced by a meiotic division encased in a

Extinction when rare

Two typical biological causes are density-dependent mating success, and synergistic social interactions, such as group foraging or defence from predators. The edge effect is a related process that occurs when individuals at the edge of a population experience declining fitness. As the geographic range of a population diminishes, a greater proportion of individuals is near the edge of the range and experience this decline in fitness. In plants a typical cause of this non-genetic decline in fitness is a decline in cross-pollination. In the rare Australian plant Banksia goodii, for example, which grows about 20 cm high, the number of seeds set per plant is positively correlated with population size, with populations covering less than 25 m2 setting no seed at all (Levin 2000). Only about 1000 plants of this species remain and most populations are very small.


Orians and Pearson (1979) invented the term central place foraging to describe this and similar situations in which animals make repeated foraging excursions from a central location. Their model introduced the basic concepts of central place foraging, developed the idea of loading prey, and distinguished single-prey and multiple-prey loaders, appreciating the different nature of the decisions that these foragers face. The simplicity, novelty, and applicability of this model inspired many field and experimental studies. Its simple framework can be applied to a variety of situations box 8.1 considers as an example the effect of social interactions on central place foraging. BOX 8.1 Effects of Social Interactions at Resource Points on Provisioning Tactics Social interactions at resource collection points often affect the tactics that provisioners use. Eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) defend territories and usually avoid one another. They compete aggressively at rich resource points,...

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