Ii

_ IWIm ith

Salivary gland rSucking pharynx

P Seminal receptacle Dorsal excretory gland

_ IWIm ith

Salivary gland rSucking pharynx

P Seminal receptacle Dorsal excretory gland

LClaw - Buccal tube Stylet

LSubpharyngeal ganglion

L Ventral nerve cord -Body cavity cell ^Midgut LClaw gland

-Cloacal opening LHindgut (cloaca) Oviduct Lateral excretory gland

Mouth r Ventral nerve cord r Ventral ganglion

Lateral excretory gland Seminal receptacle Dorsal excretory gland

Mouth r Ventral nerve cord r Ventral ganglion

Gland Mouth

FIGURE 4.10. Eutardigrade internal anatomy (Macrobiotus hufelandii, female); lateral view (above) and dorsal view (below) (Soil Biology Guide, Dindal, D. L., ©1990, John Wiley & Sons, New York. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).

LHindgut (cloaca) Oviduct Body cavity cell Claw gland Claw

FIGURE 4.10. Eutardigrade internal anatomy (Macrobiotus hufelandii, female); lateral view (above) and dorsal view (below) (Soil Biology Guide, Dindal, D. L., ©1990, John Wiley & Sons, New York. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).

soil organic matter. Tardigrades have also been observed to feed voraciously on nematodes when in culture (G. W. Yeates, personal communication). Tardigrades have been found in large numbers (up to 2000 per 10 square meters of soil surface), and are particularly associated with lichens, mosses, liverworts, and rosette angiosperms (Nelson and Higgins, 1990; Nelson and Adkins, 2001). They are found also in very cold, dry habitats, such as the Antarctic dry valleys, where they feed on the particulate organic detritus brought in by windward movement of algal cells from lake ice at one end of the long valleys (D. H. Wall, personal communication).

Tardigrades may be extracted from soils and various substrates by Baermann funnels (Petersen and Luxton, 1982), or flotation and sieving through a 44-|Mm sieve, or by the sucrose flotation and centrifugation technique used for extracting nematodes (Christie and Perry, 1951).

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